Allergic Reactions Ebook

51 Ways to Reduce Allergies

51 Ways to Reduce Allergies

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Allergy Relief

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Prevention And Control

The use of parasitic nematodes (e.g., Steinernema carpocapsae) and several fungal pathogens that have been isolated from cockroaches has not yet proved to be effective as a practical management tool. Another drawback to their use is the allergenic nature of several components of nematodes and many sporulating fungi that can become airborne and, upon inhalation, cause asthmatic responses in humans.

Taxonomy 87 Morphology 88 Life History 89 Behavior And Ecology 89 Public Health Importance 90 Veterinary Importance 96

Beetles constitute the largest order of insects but are of relatively minor public health or veterinary importance. Adults and larvae of a few species occasionally bite, but more species secrete chemicals that can irritate the skin and eyes of humans and other animals. Beetles found in stored products can cause inhalational allergies, and some species found in dung and stored products act as intermediate hosts for helminths that cause pathology in domestic and wild animals. Many dung-inhabiting beetles are beneficial in interrupting the life cycles of mammalian parasitic worms and in acting as predators or parasitoids of pestiferous flies that breed in excrement. A few beetle species are ectoparasites or mutualistic symbionts on mammals, and a few are known to temporarily invade the skin of mammals.

Cockroaches And People

Mans, but they can trigger allergic reactions among people who are especially sensitive to them. Researchers regularly working with cockroaches in laboratories may eventually become sensitive to them. In time they may experience allergy attacks, asthma, or skin irritations when exposed to cockroaches or the materials with which cockroaches have come into contact.

Cockroaches And Human Health

Cockroaches are also important because people can become allergic to them, especially under conditions of constant exposure. These reactions usually involve the skin and or respiratory system. Studies have shown that people who exhibit skin or bronchial responses to cockroaches have elevated levels of cockroach-specific antibodies. These responses can be severe and may require treatment. The species most commonly involved in producing allergic reactions are the German and American cockroaches.

Veterinary Importance

Several species of fleas are important ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals. Emphasis here is given to those which infest pets and livestock. Many fleas associated with domestic animals merely cause a nuisance through their biting activity they also may cause flea-bite dermatitis, allergies, and anemia when present in large numbers. Other fleas, such as sticktights and chigoes, embed their mouth-parts or entire bodies in mammalian or avian tissues, causing local inflammation and other problems. Some fleas are intermediate hosts of helminths that parasitize domestic animals, whereas others transmit pathogens such as viruses and trypanosomes to their hosts.

Significance Of Fleas

Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) is a severe condition found primarily in dogs, but also occasionally seen in cats. In a flea-allergic animal, flea salivary antigens initiate a cascade of symptoms, resulting in intense pruritus accompanied by scratching, biting, and self-inflicted trauma. An affected animal typically displays obsessive grooming behavior, with accompanying depilation, leaving the skin with weeping sores, often resulting in secondary infection. FAD is treated with corticosteroids, which possess undesirable side effects, especially when continuous use is required as in chronic FAD cases. Until development of FAD immunotherapy, successful treatment involves flea elimination from the animal's environment and flea bite prevention.

Veterinary Entomology

A great number of external parasites, including ticks of all types, mange mites, keds (Hippoboscidae), fleas, and biting and sucking lice, infest every kind of domestic animal (Steelman 1976). The feeding and allergenic effects of these pests cause considerable annoyance to their hosts and greatly diminish their growth and vitality. Similarly, the attacks of biting flies, mostly blackflies, mosquitoes, horseflies and deerflies, and hematophagous Muscidae, keep animals on edge and negatively affect their general health. The sites of bites may become septic, and death may ensue from loss of blood. Particularly harmful are the horn fly (Haematobia irritans), whose constant pestering can cause significant weight loss in cattle, and the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans), which can drive quadrupeds to fits. The former species has invaded South America as far south as northern Brazil but seems not to be a major problem because of its poor adaptation to tropical climates. It may become a...

Hemiptera Introduction

Pest status of this group is based on various behavior patterns. Some species, such as boxelder bugs, overwinter in large numbers around and sometimes in structures, and are pests by their presence or the allergic reactions they cause. Occasional or accidental biting by reduviids and other bug species and blood-feeding by bed bugs can be a serious problem, and difficult to control.

Economic Importance Injurious Families

The adults have mouthparts that have very effective piercing stylets, enabling these flies to bite and suck blood. Some major families with this characteristic include members of Simuliidae (Fig. 28), Culicidae (Fig. 29), Psychodidae (Fig. 30), Ceratopogonidae, Tabanidae (Fig. 31), and the blood-sucking Muscidae (Figs. 32 and 33). The bites from these groups can often cause severe allergic reactions, resulting in intense itching, rashes, and local swelling or, in some instances, hospitalization as a consequence of toxemia or anaphylactic shock.

Potential Adverse Effects

Because transgenes code for proteins, human health risks associated with these proteins and products produced by these proteins are possible. These potential risks include creation of novel toxicants, possible shifts in the nutritional content of food, and the possible creation of novel allergens. Most of the scientific attention has focused on allergens, because they are difficult to assess and there has been an increase in the incidence of food allergies. Novel proteins and their products can be altered after synthesis by alterations in amino acid sequence and by reactions with other chemicals, such as glycosylation. Assessing each of these possibilities will be challenging.

Trichoptera Introduction

Their wings are covered in short, hairlike scales, and held rooflike over the body. Antennae are long and slender, the mouthparts are chewing, and the palps are well developed. Adults feed on liquids. Caddisflies undergo complete metamorphosis the nymphs are caterpillarlike and aquatic. They have a well-developed head and thorax, and the abdominal segments have filamentous gills. Some larvae construct cases of leaves, twigs, and sand, while others construct nets, and a few are free-living. These insects occur in ponds, lakes, and streams. Pest status of caddisflies is linked to the emergence of large numbers of adults extending from spring to fall, and their attraction to lights at night. In some regions, large numbers of adults will gather on turfgrass and shrubs in peridomestic habitats after emerging from nearby ponds or streams. Allergic reactions and asthma (locally called sand fever) have been associated with swarms of caddisflies, the...

Taxonomy 364 Morphology 364 Life History 368 Behavior And Ecology 368 Public Health Importance 377 Veterinary

Are armed with poisonous setae or spines which, on contact with sldn, can cause a stinging or burning sensation. Under certain circumstances, stinging caterpillars may be ingested by domestic animals, resulting in gastrointestinal problems. This most commonly occurs when animals such as cattle and horses graze on infested forage. Adults can also contribute to health problems. The inhalation of wing scales and body hairs of adult moths can induce allergic reactions, whereas contact with the silk of certain species can cause allergic responses in sensitized individuals. The most unusual lepidopterans from a medical-veterinary perspective are species which, as adults, feed on animal fluids. Some moths feed about the eyes, whereas others are attracted to wounds and in some cases can actually penetrate the skin of humans and other animals to feed direcdy on blood.

Public Health Importance

Oriental Roach Bite Cause Blister Skin

Of pathogens, induced allergies, psychological stress, and bites. Although documentation of bites is limited, there are reports of cockroaches feeding on fingernails, eyelashes, skin calluses of hands and feet, and food residues about the faces of sleeping humans, causing blisters and small wounds (Roth and Willis 1957, 1960). There are other accounts of bites around the mouths of infants in heavily infested homes and even in hospitals. American and Australian cockroaches are the most often implicated species. Bites by the Oriental cockroach have resulted in inflammation of the skin, degeneration of epithelial cells, and subsequent necrosis of the involved tissues.

Pictures Of Simulium Swarming Around The Head

Black Fly Bite

A general syndrome, sometimes called black fly fever, is common in areas such as northeastern North America, where biting problems can be intense. It is characterized by headache, nausea, fever, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. Many people experience some itching, intensified by scratching the wound. Severe allergic reactions, including asthmatic responses, are infrequent however, medical treatment, including hospitalization, is sometimes necessary (Gudgel and Grauer, 1954). No human deaths from simuliid bites have been recorded in the 20th century, although anecdotal accounts suggest that an unclothed human can be exsanguinated in about 2 hr in some areas of Russia. Exposure to fierce attacks of biting and swarming black flies can severely affect a person's emotional state and produce short-term psychological effects that reduce individual efficiency. S. jenningsi, a major pest in North America. Females of this species sometimes bite humans and occasionally cause allergic...

Cryptostigmata Oribatida

This species is characterized by the presence of curled dorsal setae, the absence of exobothridial setae, and an epimeral formula of 3-0-3-2. It occurs in indoor swimming pools in Japan. All life stages of these mites can be isolated from water in the pool, including eggs and larvae found in the abdominal cavity of the females, nymphs, and adults. Itis parthenogenetic, so invasion of a single individual to a swimmingpool may resultin an infesting population. The occurrence is medically important because there are strong antigenic cross-reactivities between H. crispus and the common house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae. The swimming pool mite has allergenic components, which are common with those of the dust mite.

Cryptocerus Blattidae

Leipzig de Gryter, 1974. Bell, W. J., C. Parsons, and E. A. Martinko. Cockroach aggregation pheromones analysis ofaggregation tendency and species specificity. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc., 45 (1972), 414-20. Bernton, H. S. and H. Brown. Insect allergy - preliminary studies of the cockroach. J. Allergy, 35 (i964), 506. Cockroach allergy II the relation of infestation to sensitization. South. Med. J., 60 (1967), 852-5. Insect allergy the allergenic potential of the cockroach. South. Med. J., 62 (1969), 1207-10. Bey-Bienko, G. Investigations of the Blattoidea of southern China. Helm, R. M., A. W. Burks, L. W. Williams, R. J. Brenner. Identification ofmajorcockroachaeroallergens from living cultures ofGerman or American cockroaches. J. Allergy Clin., 87 (1991), 189. Kang, B. Cockroach allergy. Clin. R. Allergy, 8 (1990), 87-98. Lan, J-L., D-T. Lee, C-H. Wu, C-P. Ching, and C-L. Yeh. Cockroach hypersensitivity preliminary study of allergic cockroach asthma in Taiwan. J. Allergy...

Astigmata Sarcoptiformes

Thyreophagus Entomophagus

Grain mite, cheese mite, Acarus siro (Fig. 18.1a) Adults are about 0.4 mm long and opaque white. Infested materials include cereals, processed cereal products, cheese, medicinal herbs, and litter in poultry houses. This mite can infesta variety of food materials, and often lives on fungi. It occurs in house dust and is strongly allergenic to humans. Eggs are laid singly and females produce 1-24 eggs per day fecundity is about 230 eggs, but is 670 with powdered milk or wheat germ as food, at 20 C and 80 RH. Development from egg to adult is 78 days at 4 C, and 9.2 days at 28 C and 80 RH. Females reared on wheat germ live 42-51 days males live a few days less. Grain moisture of at least 13.4 is required for survival feeding and other activity stops at 0 C. Optimal conditions are 20-25 Cand 75-80 RH. It is a cosmopolitan species, but is more abundant in temperate regions. Closely related species, Euroglyphus maynei (Fig. 18.1f) Adults are about 0.4 mm long. The body is distinctly pointed...

Insects Whose Products Are Commercially Valuable

Bee management was probably first carried out by the ancient Egyptians. Honey bees were brought to North America by colonists in the early l600s, and today honey and beeswax production is a billion dollar industry. In 2001 world honey production was estimated at about 1.25 million tonnes and a value of about US 4 billion. China is the world's largest honey producer, accounting for almost 20 of the total the United States lies in third place (behind the former USSR), producing about 100,000 tonnes (with a value of about US 330 million) honey.htm). Beeswax is produced at the rate of about 1 kg for every 50-100 kg of honey its value per kilogram varies between one and three times that of honey. There is a significant world trade, perhaps worth about US 10 million annually, in pollen which is used not only by beekeepers to supplement the reserves in the hive but also in the health-food industry. Other products that are collected include propolis (bee glue), venom (used to desensitize...

Liposcelis bostrychophila

Book lice are considered a nuisance when they infest stored foods and libraries. Their presence in the home may also set off allergy and asthma attacks. (Illustration by Barbara Duperron. Reproduced by permission.) Book lice and people Book lice are considered a nuisance when they infest stored foods and libraries. Their presence in the home may also set off allergy and asthma attacks. Book lice are considered a nuisance when they infest stored foods and libraries. Their presence in the home may also set off allergy and asthma attacks. (Illustration by Barbara Duperron. Reproduced by permission.)

Minor Arthropod Problems Of Medicalveterinary Interest

On rare occasions, springtails have been recorded infesting human skin (Scott et al. 1962, Scott 1966). Similarly, some bark lice (psocids) are known to cause allergies or dermatitis in humans (Li and Li 1995, Baz and Monserrat 1999). Certain adult mayflies and caddisflies can cause inhalational allergies, especially when they emerge in large numbers from lakes, rivers, or streams (Seshadri 1955).

Dermestidae Larder Beetles

Larvae of larder beetles, or pantry beetles (Fig. 6.7), are covered with barbed and spearlike setae that may cause allergic reactions in the form of pruritic, papulovesicular skin lesions. Dermestid larvae often are found living in household furnishings, such as carpets, rugs, and upholstery, or stored clothing of individuals suffering from these reactions, Larder beetles are named for their common occurrence as pantry pests, but they may also be found in grain storage facilities, in bird and mammal nests and burrows, and on carrion. The larvae and adults are

Food Contaminants

Many arthropods can contaminate or spoil food materials. In addition to causing direct damage to food resources, arthropods or their parts (e.g., setae, scales, shed cuticles, or body fragments) may be accidentally ingested. This can lead to toxic or allergic reactions, gastrointestinal myiasis, and other disorders.

Class Arachnida

During the middle Paleozoic, chelicerates made the rigorous transition from water to land only later did over 5000 species of arachnid mites adopt a secondary aquatic existence. Arachnids then rapidly radiated in form and species richness in association with their predaceous and parasitic exploitation of insects. One crucial factor in this success has been the diverse uses of silk by spiders, pseudoscorpions, and some mites. Although some degree of arachnophobia afflicts many people, relatively few of the 76,000 described species are directly harmful to humans because of their venom, link with diseases and allergies, or competition for plant resources. More than balancing their negative attributes is the substantial role in biocontrol of insect pests. Many acarines are ectoparasitic in larval and or adult stages. Animal parasites attack mammals (including humans and domestic animals), birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, aquatic and terrestrial insects, other arachnids, and some other...

Dermestidae

Carpet Beetle Skin Reaction

Pest status of dermestid beetles is based primarily on the damage to commercial and household food materials, and the infestations that occur in the stored ingredients to the finished food products. Feeding on organic fabrics and other domestic materials results in economic loss and replacement costs. Infestations in museums result in losses to scientific collections ofinsects and vertebrates, and archived fabric and furs. Infestations may also cause medical problems. Setae on the larvae easily detach and produce allergic reactions, such as rhinitis and respiratory asthma. Infestations of Dermestes larvae indoors can expose sensitive skin and result in irritation. Similarly infested ship's cargo can release large quantities of larval skins in a confined space and cause irritated skin, conjunctivitis, and irritation of respiratory passages. The barbed larval setae of Trogoderma may occur in large numbers in infested grain, and cause allergic reactions if swallowed in food processed...

Tabanidae

Pest status of mayflies is linked to the mass emergence of subimagos and adults from lakes and rivers near urban and suburban areas. Large numbers of dying mayflies accumulate along roads and streets sometimes piles of dead insects may be 1.2 m deep. This concentration ofinsects in one place often causes problems with automobile and train traffic. Polarized light may be the attraction that brings mayfly adults to water surfaces, and certain kinds of asphalt can reflect polarized light, which may be the reason why mayfly adults gather on roadways. The shed skins and dried bodies of dead mayflies break into small pieces and they are carried by the wind. When this material is inhaled, it can cause allergic reactions in people sensitive to insects. The overenrichment of streams and rivers from farm and urban runoff can result in large numbers of mayfly nymphs in streams. The nymphs of an Asian species of Povilla burrow into submerged wood pilings and may cause structural damage and...

Blackflies

Did millions upon millions of blackflies soar over Cretaceous fens and fern grottos, clogging the nasal passages of feeding dinosaurs Would their appearance cause dinosaurs to stampede, tripping over rocks, breaking legs, or plunging off cliffs in a frantic rush to escape the torturers Were toxic substances in insect saliva causing allergic reactions and blood poisoning Could masses of these noxious flies cover a dinosaur's skin and remove so much blood that it would expire from exsanguination All of the above are known to occur today when blackflies attack grazing bovines on the plains of western Canada.204 205 These insects are capable of swarming over the prairie for miles searching for cattle. The most dramatic result of these forays is exsanguina-tion when hundreds at a time settle on a victim and drain the blood over the course of a few days. Even if some survive the initial attack, many eventually succumb from broken bones, starvation, and infections. Such a scene is not...

Solenopsis

Are disturbed, the workers will leave the nest and attack the intruder. They will hold on to the skin with their mandibles, and pull it forward so that they can extend the gaster between their legs and sting repeatedly. The venom of the red imported fire antis unusual in thatitcontains anecrotizing toxin, trans-2-methyl-6-n-undecylpiperidine (solenopsin A). Potential severe allergic reactions can occur when susceptible individuals are stung.

Fleas And People

The bites of the dog, cat, and human fleas are very annoying and may cause itching and allergic reactions in sensitive people. Scratching flea bites often causes further discomfort and leads to infections. Some fleas carry diseases that infect both humans and pets. Plague and other diseases are spread either through the bites of infected fleas or by rubbing the waste of infected fleas into the bite wounds. Eating fleas infected with parasitic worms and blood protozoan parasites can spread these harmful organisms to humans, dogs, rabbits, rats, and other animals.

Pocket Mites

Mites or acari are small arachnids, close to spiders and scorpions, but much more numerous in species and in individuals (Baker and Wharton, 1952). They are to be found in almost every habitat available to animal life. Some are free in the soil, forest litter, on plants, in fresh or sea waters. Others are parasitic or symbiotic on plants and animals or transmit diseases like tsutsugamushi, the scrub typhus etc. Some are floating in the air, with air currents, with the dust, and can cause allergies. Their variety is immense, perhaps millions, and a large number of them remain to be discovered and described, mostly in tropical forests and in the soil. In achieving biodiversity they have surpassed even their cousins, the insects. Ticks, which are big mites, are mostly blood suckers, and get inflated after a blood meal. They transmit diseases to man and domestic animals, like piroplasmosis and many bacterial and viral diseases. Lyme fever, caused by a spirochaete, is an important disease,...

And acarophobia

Mites have been very successful in exploiting vertebrate hosts. Many are ectoparasites of skin, scales, feathers, or fur, whereas others are endoparasites that have invaded body cavities, respiratory passages, and internal tissues and organs. Some mites are vectors of disease agents of domestic and wild animals, while still others serve as intermediate hosts for animal parasites, notably tapeworms. Occasionally mites are the cause of allergic reactions of pets and other animals. For overviews of mites of veterinary importance, see Hirst (1922), Baker et al. (1956), Strandtmann and Wharton (1958), Sweatman (1971, 1984), Yunker (1973), Georgi and Whitlock (1980), Whitaker (1982), Nutting (1984), and Pence (1984). For works of a more regional nature, see Domrow (1988, 1991, 1992) for Australia, Mulla and Medina (1980) for South America, and Cosorab (1994) for Eurasia.

Diptera

As expected for a ubiquitous group with diverse habits and habitats, the Diptera are of considerable economic importance. Pestiferous groups can have significant impacts in agriculture (e.g., Agromyzidae, Tephritidae), forestry (e.g., Cecidomyiidae), animal health (e.g., Oestridae), and human health (e.g., Culicidae, Simuliidae, Psychodidae). Other groups can be a general nuisance if present in high numbers (e.g., Muscidae, Ceratopogonidae) or because of allergic reactions to detached body hairs (e.g., Chironomidae). Despite these negative impacts, flies can play a valuable role as scavengers (e.g., Mycetophilidae, Muscidae, Calliphoridae), parasitoids and predators of other insects (e.g., Tachinidae, Empididae, Asilidae), pollinators (e.g., Syrphidae, Stratiomyiidae, Bom-byliidae), food for vertebrates (e.g., Chironomidae, Tipulidae), bioindicators of water quality (e.g., Chironomidae, Blephariceridae), and tools for scientific research (e.g., Drosophilidae).

House Dust Mites

Euroglyphus Maynei

A major source of human allergens in the home is house dust and its associated mite fauna. Where humidity is sufficiently high, fungi tend to thrive in accumulated dust, providing food for a variety of house-infesting mites that are primarily saprophages or fiingivores. Many of these mites are the same species that infest stored products, nests of rodents and birds, and animal litter. When their populations reach high levels in the home, they can cause acute or chronic allergic reactions commonly known as house-dust allergy. The principal allergenic components in house dust are mites and mite feces, rather than the dust material itself. As many as 10 families and 19 species of mites have been recovered from house dust in a single urban community (Tandon et al., 1988), reflecting the diversity of mites that occur in that microhabitat. The most important taxa that cause human allergy are members of the Pyroglyphidae, notably those belonging to the genera Dermatophagoides and...

Hornets

Yellowjacket venom consists almost entirely of proteins. It is about 75 low-molecular-weight peptides, and 25 high-molecular-weight enzymes, and with a small proportion (by weight) of biogenic, low-molecular-weight amines. The three major enzymatic proteins in yellowjacket venom are a hyaluronidase, a phospholipase, and a protein named antigen 5, which appears to be the major allergen. The substances responsible for the intense pain during a sting are probable amines, such as histamine, serotonin, and kinin (wasp kinins). There seems to be no allergenic or antigenic cross-reactivity between yellowjacket proteins and honey bee venom. There is cross-reactivity between venoms and individual allergens among yellowjacket species. A wasp sting with the injection of venom produces immediate pain and local inflammation, but the subsequent reaction is variable and dependent on an individual's immunological status. Nearly all fatalities resulting from a wasp or bee sting are the result ofa...

Storage Mites

People who handle mite-infested stored products may become sensitized to the mites on subsequent contact, resulting in an immunological response called storage-mite allergy. Although the precise nature of the allergens is unknown, these substances include components of both live and dead mites and material produced in the mite alimentary tract. Sensitized persons may experience either contact dermatitis or respiratory allergy, depending on the type of exposure. Allergic contact dermatitits results from exposure to mites in grains, dried fruits, flour, and other stored products, causing itching and redness at the contact sites. The families of mites most commonly involved are the Acaridae, Carpoglyphidae, and Glycyphagidae. In addition, what was probably Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, but reported as D. scheremetewski (Pyroglyphidae), has been associated with cases of feather pillow dermatitis. Contact with this mite infesting feather pillows is known to cause red papular lesions and...

Medical injury

Most orders of insects and other arthropods contain species that have medical importance, either because they bite, sting, suck blood, transmit parasites and pathogens, or because they induce allergies, delusional parasitosis, or entomophobia. No medically importantpesthas an exclusively urban distribution all occur in urban and natural habitats, to a greater or lesser degree. However, when these pests occur in or around the living space or workplace, their importance increases and control actions are more common. Arthropods with the highest pest status are those that inflict a painful bite, sting, or suck blood (whether painfully or not). Although they may present only a limited health risk, their presence is not tolerated. The most common ofthese worldwide include head louse, scabies mite, bed bugs, and spiders. Allergies Allergic disease is a common disorder affecting about 40 of the world population. The allergen proteins that induce allergic reactions may be inhaled, ingested,...