How To Get Rid Of Bed Bugs

Oplan Bed Bugs

Oplan Bed Bugs

You Might Start Missing Your Bugs After Kickin'em Out After All, They Have Been Your Roommates For Quite A While. Is Your Bedroom Infested With Bed Bugs? Enraged With Their Biting Every Night? Can't Wait To Have Them Exterminated Completely From The Face Of The Earth? Fret Not. We Will Tell You How To Get Rid Of Them From Your House At Least If Not From The Face Of The Earth.

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How To Be Free From Bedbugs

Bed Bugs 911 Will Show You: The sneaky places bed bugs like to hide and how to find them. How to keep from bring bed bugs home with you, when you travel. Why older methods of bed bug protection dont work anymore. How you can protect your kids and your pets from the blood sucking beasts. The vital steps you must take to eliminate a bed bug infestationfast! Plus many more ways you can deal with these problem Even if you've never had to face bed bugs head on, this book is an absolute necessity to protect you and your family from the increasingly aggressive onslaught of bed bugs. Once you have finished the book you can be confident you will Never have to face a bed bug infestation in your own home.

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Bed Bug Control Guide

This simple guide lays out a proven step-by-step blueprint for you to get rid of bed bugs permanently and to ensure they wont come back! Heres what youll learn inside Bed Bugs Treatment Secrets Revealed: Bed bug removal secrets compiled and found Only in this guide. Step-by-step methods to eliminate an existing bed bug infestation in any home or apartment. Easy-to-follow instructions on how to protect yourself from bites while sleeping, before your infestation is removed. Warning: Something you should Never do when dealing with bed bugs 5 simple keys to saving Hundreds of dollars from useless exterminator treatments. One little-known tip to detect where bed bugs are hiding, more effective than exterminators and even trained dogs! 10 time-tested and proven strategies to get rid of Any bed bug infestation Quickly and Naturally. 16 university-tested and scientifically proven chemicals for every specific bed bug scenario (mattresses, indoor spaces, frames etc.) to use only for the most severe bed bug infestations. While we will focus on natural remedies, I wanted to include this because no one else has this! Much, much more Bed Bugs Treatment Secrets Revealed is ideal for just about any situation. Heres why: This natural method works without chemicals. What this means to you is not having to worry about exposing yourself, your family, and pets to toxic chemicals. This guide details methods that are 100% organic. This guide requires no pest control experience. If you are like me not a professional exterminator this is perfect.

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Author: Mike Romner
Official Website: www.getridofbedbugstreatment.com
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Bed Bug Bites How To Get Rid Of Bed Bugs

These Are Some Of The Tips You Will Find In The Book : What Bed Bugs Look Like Learn How To Identify Them First Before You Can Beat Them. A Brief History Of The Bed Bug Like A Criminal, You Need To Do Background Checking :-) The Life Cycle Of The Bed Bug Know How You Can Beat Them The Easy Way. What A Bed Bug Can Do To You These Little Prey Can Do A Lot Against You. How To Control Bed Bugs Step ByStep Techniques To Beat Them. The Truth Behind Articles On Bed Bugs Know What Other Saying About Bed Bugs. How To Get Rid Of Bed Bugs You Don't Want To Miss This Part. Bugged And Bitten: The Bed Bug Problem. How To Deal With Bed Bugs In Hotels Bed Bugs Are Everywhere Including Luxury Hotels. Bug's Life The Real Picture Of Bed Bugs. The War On Exterminating Bed Bugs. Controlling Bed Bugs And Other Pests. A Guide To Get Rid Of Bed Bugs. Notoriously Tiny Predators. Don't Let The Bed Bugs Bite. Bed Bugs Woes! How To Get Rid Of Bed Bugs. Bed Bug Detection. Native Indian Remedies To Get Rid Of Bed Bugs. How Do Bed Bugs Look Like?

Bed Bug Bites How To Get Rid Of Bed Bugs Overview

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Cimex lectularius

Geographic range Bed bugs are found on all continents, except Antarctica. They are rare or absent in large areas of Asia. Bed bugs and people Bed bugs have been considered pests since the time of ancient Egypt and classical Greece. Their populations expand rapidly among humans living in crowded conditions. Bed bug bites are painless, but their saliva does cause itching. They can spread some parasites with their bites. Cimex lectularius prefer to live in human dwellings and usually find shelter in the narrow spaces found in bedrooms, bed frames, and mattresses, or under wallpaper. They feed on human blood but will also attack chickens, dogs, and bats. ( Sinclair Stammers Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Cimex lectularius prefer to live in human dwellings and usually find shelter in the narrow spaces found in bedrooms, bed frames, and mattresses, or under wallpaper. They feed on human blood but will also attack chickens, dogs, and bats. ( Sinclair Stammers Photo...

Bedbugs

Cimicidae, Cimicinae, Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus. Spanish Chinches de cama (General). Portuguese Percevejos Human bedbugs are truly cosmopolitan insects, having followed humans over most of the world (Anon. 1973). The two anthrophilic species have been well known since antiquity in the Old World, where their original hosts were probably bats. They first took to man in southern Europe or the Middle East in the case of the common bedbug (C. lectularius) or the Orient in the case of the tropical bedbug (C. hemipterus) and surely spread to the New World with the first explorers and immigrants. Early published mentions of the species are always suspect owning to the chroniclers' use of chinche and Aztec texcan not only for common bedbugs but for other arthropods (Hoeppli 1969 183). These bugs are ravenous nocturnal blood seekers cohabiting with man, hiding in cracks, mattresses, and so on, and behind furniture during the day. They emerge at night to join us in our beds and to fill...

Bed Bugs Cimicidae

The family Cimicidae includes species known by several common names, including bed bugs, bat bugs, and swallow bugs. All species in this family are wingless, obligate hematophagous ectoparasites. Their medical and veterinary importance relates primarily to the loss of blood and discomfort caused by their feeding on vertebrate hosts. The monograph on the Cimicidae by Usinger (1966) is still the most comprehensive and best work on the ecology, morphology, reproductive biology, systematics, and taxonomy of the group. Over 50 common names have been given to bed bugs in different countries. Some of these are mahogany-flat (Baltimore), heavy dragoon (Oxford), red coat (New York), wall louse (Wandlaus, Wegluis, and Wanze German ), Wagglus (Swedish), Vaeggelus (Danish), Piq-seq (Chinese), Chincht (Old Spanish), Chinga (Gallic), Nachtkmbbler (night crawler, German), Tapetenflunder (wallpaper flounder, German), Punaise (stinker, French), Perceveja (pursuer, Portuguese), Lude (Finnish), Plostice...

Preface To The Fourth Edition

The updated chapter texts are supplemented with an additional 18 new boxes, including on the topical subjects of the African honey bee and Colony collapse disorder (of bees) in the sphere of apiary, beewolf microbial defense, and the use of bed nets and resurgence of bed bugs, Dengue fever, and West Nile virus in relation to human health. New boxes are provided on how entomologists recognize species, on important aquatic insects and energy fluxes, and on evolutionary relationships of flamingo lice. Some case studies in emergent plant pests are presented, including the Emerald ash borer that is destroying North American landscape trees, and other insects (light brown apple moth, citrus psyllid and fruit flies) that threaten US crops. We relate the astonishing success story in classical biological control of the glassy-winged sharpshooter in the Pacific that provides hope for rejuvenation of this method of pest control.

History Of Medicalveterinary Entomology

Problems caused by biting and annoying arthropods and the pathogens they transmit have been the subject of writers since antiquity (Service 1978). Homer (mid-8th century BC), Aristophanes (ca. 448-380 BC), Aristotle (384-322 BC), Plautus (ca. 254-184 BC), Columella (5 BC to AD 65), and Pliny (AD 23-79) all wrote about the nuisance caused by flies, mosquitoes, lice, and or bedbugs. However, the study of modern medical-veterinary entomology is usually recognized as beginning in the late 19th century, when blood-sucking arthropods were first proven to be vectors of human and animal pathogens.

Evolution And Classification

At first (Paleoptera), wings were clumsy, outwardly projecting, fixed, flight organs, as seen in many extinct groups of the Paleozoic (e.g., Palaeodictyoptera) and extant mayflies and Odonata, but soon acquired improvements, among them the ability to be flexed over the body which all the higher orders have (Neoptera). Even those that have secondarily lost wings altogether, often in association with ectopara-sitism (fleas, lice, bedbugs, etc.), retain the thoracic structure of their fully winged ancestors.

Behavior and Ecology

Cimicids are similar to triatomines in their choices of hiding places, the nature of the substrates selected, and their feeding patterns. They hide in cracks and crevices in human and animal habitations and in nests, caves, and tree holes in natural settings. They prefer rough, dry substrates which allow maximum contact of the bugs with the surface. Their attraction to such harborages between feedings often results in large aggregations. In domestic situations, bed bugs prefer hiding in wood and paper accumulations rather than in materials made of stone, plaster, metal, or textiles. Both C. lectularius and C. hemipterus may infest mattresses, box springs, and upholstered furniture. Other common sites of infestations include public facilities such as theaters and office waiting rooms and upholstered seats in buses. Cimicids will crawl into the narrowest crevices, such as those formed behind loose wallpaper, pictures, or electrical switch or socket plates. The harborages and infested...

Public Health Importance

Usinger (1966) listed 27 human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths, that have been shown to survive for varying lengths of time in C. lectularius and C. hemipterus. However, there is little or no evidence to incriminate bed bugs as vectors of these or any other disease agents. Although transmission studies with bed bugs and HIV indicate that these insects may harbor the virus for up to 8 days, replication of the virus does not occur and the virus is not present in cimicid feces. These observations, together with failed attempts to experimentally transmit HIV by interrupted feedings, suggest that cimicids are neither biological nor mechanical vectors of HIV. Despite the fact that cimicids do not play a significant role as vectors of human pathogens, bed bugs are medically important because they cause unpleasant bite reactions and significant blood loss in people living in dwellings that are chronically infested. The actual feeding by bed bugs generally does...

Hemiptera Introduction

Pest status of this group is based on various behavior patterns. Some species, such as boxelder bugs, overwinter in large numbers around and sometimes in structures, and are pests by their presence or the allergic reactions they cause. Occasional or accidental biting by reduviids and other bug species and blood-feeding by bed bugs can be a serious problem, and difficult to control.

The Gut Digestion And Nutrition

Insects of different groups consume an astonishing variety of foods, including watery xylem sap (e.g. nymphs of spittle bugs and cicadas), vertebrate blood (e.g. bed bugs and female mosquitoes), dry wood (e.g. some termites), bacteria and algae (e.g. black fly and many caddisfly larvae), and the internal tissues of other insects (e.g. endoparasitic wasp larvae). The diverse range of mouthpart types (section 2.3.1) correlates with the diets of different insects, but gut structure and function also reflect the mechanical properties and the nutrient composition of the food eaten. Four major feeding specializations can be identified depending on whether the food is solid or liquid or of plant or animal origin (Fig. 3.12). Some insect species clearly fall into a single category, but others with generalized diets may fall between two or more of them, and most endopterygotes will occupy different categories at different stages of their life (e.g. moths and butterflies switch from solid-plant...

Muscles And Locomotion

Moisture yet become active at lower humidity. Insects that normally secrete themselves in cracks or crevices, for example, earwigs and bedbugs, exhibit stereokinesis, an inhibition of movement that occurs when a sufficient number of mechanoreceptors on the body surface are stimulated.

Insect Cryopreservation

It is patently obvious that cryopreservation of sperm or eggs is only a valuable asset when additional techniques are available to facilitate instrumental insemination of the female insect or in vitro fertilization of eggs. While it is commonly thought that the honey bee Apis mellifera L. is the only insect for which an instrumental insemination technique has been developed (Laidlaw 1977), similar methods have also been crafted for the yellow fever transmitting mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Burcham 1957), the common bedbug Cimex lectularius L. (Davis 1965), the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Bohemann (Villavaso 1974), the fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (Ball et al. 1983), the silkworm Bombyx mori (L.) (Takemura et al. 1999) and three species of bumblebees Bombus spp.

Diversity In Genitalic Morphology

Aedeagus Female Organ

Another example is the long spermathecal tube of some female crickets (Gryllinae), fleas (Ceratophyllinae), flies (e.g. Tephritidae), and beetles (e.g. Chrysomelidae), which corresponds to a long spermatophore tube in the male, suggesting an evolutionary contest over control of sperm placement in the spermatheca. In the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Chrysomelidae Bruchinae) spines on the male's intromittent organ wound the genital tract of the female during copulation either to reduce remating and or increase female oviposition rate, both of which would increase his fertilization success. The female responds by kicking to dislodge the male, thus shortening copulation time, reducing genital damage and presumably maintaining some control over fertilization. It is also possible that traumatic insemination (known in Cimicoidea, including bed bugs Cimex lectularius, and in a few species of Miridae and Nabidae), in which the male inseminates the female via the hemocoel by piercing...

The Hemipteroid Orders

Miroidea and Cimicoidea. (A) The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Miridae) (B) the four-lined plant bug, Poecilocapsus lineatus (Miridae) and (C) the bedbug, Cimex lectularius (Cimicidae). A, B, from H. H. Knight, 1941, The plant bugs, or Miridae, of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 22(1) 234 pp. By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey. FIGURE 8.19. Miroidea and Cimicoidea. (A) The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Miridae) (B) the four-lined plant bug, Poecilocapsus lineatus (Miridae) and (C) the bedbug, Cimex lectularius (Cimicidae). A, B, from H. H. Knight, 1941, The plant bugs, or Miridae, of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 22(1) 234 pp. By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey. Members of this superfamily of about 1000 species are united by the occurrence of hemocoelic insemination (see Chapter 19, Section 4.3.1), egg fertilization in the vitellarium of the ovary, and pre-ovipositional embryonic development. Most belong...

The Tracheal System And Gas Exchange

Insects of different groups consume an astonishing variety of foods, including watery xylem sap (e.g. nymphs of spittle bugs and cicadas), vertebrate blood (e.g. bed bugs and female mosquitoes), dry wood (e.g. some termites), bacteria and algae (e.g. black fly and many caddisfly larvae), and the internal tissues of other insects (e.g. endoparasitic wasp larvae). The diverse range of mouthpart types (section 2.3.1) correlates with the diets of different insects, but gut structure and function also reflect the mechanical properties and the nutrient composition of the food eaten. Four major feeding specializations can be identified depending on whether the food is solid or liquid or of plant or animal origin (Fig. 3.12). Some insect species clearly fall into a single category, but others with generalized diets may fall between two or more of them, and most endoptery-gotes will occupy different categories at different stages of their life (e.g. moths and butterflies switch from solidplant...

Peridomestic and domestic habitats

May be few species, but those adapted to specialized resources often occur in large numbers. Stored food, including packaged whole food and vegetables, organic fabrics, and other materials are the most common harborages and food resources in the domestic habitat. Directly or indirectly associated with these are dermestid beetles, flour beetles and moths, flies, and cockroaches. The global distribution of domestic products and similar storage environments across cultures has contributed to the cosmopolitan pest status of many of these insects, in both residential and commercial sites. Blood- and skin-feeding species that breed indoors are limited, but lice, fleas, bed bugs, and mites are medically important pests for more than one socioeconomic level of society. Insects and other arthropods in the living space are nuisance pests when they are few and their presence brief, but are not tolerated when they pose a health threat or persist in large numbers. Natural habitats and populations...

Urban Entomology

Ment they occupy, including private dwellings, restaurants and other food handling establishments, warehouses, manufacturing plants, and buildings dedicated to business, medical care, and recreation. The principal problems are health related, not only from direct contact but through contamination of food, bedding, and circulating products. Some curious psychological syndromes also are exacerbated, among them delusory parasitosis and mass hysterias associated with real or imagined microscopic insects believed to infest the human skin. Wooden structures and their furnishings are destroyed by insects, as are stored products. Use of outdoor recreational areas often exposes humans to arthropod vectors of pathogens. Hotels, bathhouses, and like establishments foster the transmission of body parasites like lice and bedbugs.

Ectoparasitic Orders

External parasitism is a pervasive adaptation determining some major evolutionary lines all members of three entire orders of insects are obligatory ectoparasites of vertebrates (Askew 1971, Marshall 1981). They live on the host superficially, sometimes burrowing into its skin or penetrating exterior cavities but completely tied to it (Nelson et al. 1975). Such is the way of life of the Mallophaga (chewing lice), Ano-plura (sucking lice), and Siphonaptera (fleas). This chapter treats these orders independently, separate from those families and lesser aggregations of ectoparasitic insects among other orders which are discussed in their places next to their free-living relatives (see scabies mite, chiggers, etc., chap. 4 bedbugs, bat bedbugs, etc., chap. 8 parasitic rove beetles, chap. 9 bat tick flies, louse flies, chap. 11). (For phylogenetic reasons, the louse orders are combined by some authors into one, the Phthiraptera, or even joined with the Psocoptera they are treated here as...

Heteropterans

Assassin bugs possess formidable bites in which they inject toxins in their saliva that can cause humans excruciating pain (Ryckman 1979, Ryckman and Bentley 1979). Two major heteropteran groups are medically significant as disease vectors or noxious bloodsuckers the kissing bugs and the bedbugs.

Metabolism

Mycetocytes (bacteriocytes) are found in widely different groups of insects, though in common these have nutritionally poor or unbalanced diets such as wood (ants, ceramby-cid, and anobiid beetle larvae), phloem sap (aphids, planthoppers, mealybugs), and blood (bedbugs, tsetse flies, sucking lice). Mycetocytes are generally stated to be specialized fat

Folk Medicine

Many other insects and insect-derived products have been, and sometimes continue to be, used to improve health and treat disease. One product of insects that is widely used today in the context of what might be called folk medicine is bee pollen. The consumption of bee pollen is said to improve general health and increase stamina. Tonics and teas derived from nearly every insect order, from bedbugs to beetles and cicadas, have found their way into the human apothecary. In China, exuviae left behind by newly emerged adults are used to prepare a tonic to treat eye disease and ailments of the lungs and liver and to soothe crying children. Another particularly interesting use of insect-derived pharmaceuticals in China has recently received much publicity. A tonic made from the fruiting body of the entomophagous fungus Cordyceps sinensis is considered a general-health and stress-relieving tonic. The fungus is collected in the wild from the dead caterpillar hosts of the hepialid moth...

Cheliferidae

Booklouse, Chelifer cancroides (Fig. 18.9h) Adults are 46 mm long and brown to dark brown. The abdomen has 12 distinct segments (which appear as 11 segments) and is broadly attached to the cephalothorax. Pedipalps are long and enlarged apically. Adults and nymphs can move rapidly forwards, backwards, and sideways. This species occurs indoors where itpreys on mites, flies, bed bugs, caterpillars and other arthropods. They are most active from March to May.

Solifugae

Solifugae occur in tropical and subtropical regions, and sometimes in hot, dry, desert areas. In Europe six species occur in southeast Spain, Greece, the Balkans, and in the vicinity of the Black Sea. Gluvia dorsalis occurs in urban habitats in Spain, and Mummucia varigata and Pseudocleobis moricans are common during the day on the streets of Santiago, Chile. In the USA, there are about 10 described species, and these occur in western states. Several species, such as Solpuga sericea and S. lineata, burrow into the ground to feed on termites. A California species of Eremobates kills bees, and a small nocturnal species, E. pal-lipes, is known to prey on bed bugs. In eastern USA the only solfugid is Ammotrechella stimpsoni, which occurs in southern

Choosy Females

That benefit males but are costly to females. In some cases there may even be overt female behavioural responses (vigorous rejection or avoidance behaviours). It is then necessary to identify the male (inevitably) behavioural or anatomical traits that are likely to reduce female fitness. The next task is to document the cost to females of variation in those male traits. In a recent study of bed bugs Stutt and Siva-Jothy (2001) experimentally adjusted the male copulation rate to maintain maximum fertility with a minimum of copulations, and showed that male-controlled copulation rates resulted in a 25 reduction in female survivorship. This high cost will be the basis of a sexual conflict. At the time of writing there are only a handful of studies that unambiguously demonstrate sexual conflict, and each uses a very different approach because of the diverse nature of the adaptations in question. What all have in common is that they first demonstrate a reduction in female fitness (usually...

Hemiptera

The physiology and activity of the bed-bug (Cimex lectularius L.) in a natural infestation. Parasitology, 31 (1939), 200-ii. Aboul-Nasr, A. E. and M. A. S. Erakey. Behaviour and sensory physiology of the bedbug, Cimex lectularius L. to some environmental factors. Chemoreception (Hemiptera-Heteroptera Cimicidae). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Egypt, 52 (1958), 353-62. Bell, W. and C. W. Schaefer. Longevity and egg production of female bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, fed various blood fractions and other substances. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 59 (1966), 53-6. Burton, G. J. Bedbugs in relation to transmission ofhuman disease. Public Health Rep., 78 (1963), 513-24. Cragg, F. W. Observations on the bionomics of the bedbug (Cimex lectularius L.), with special reference to the relation of the sexes. Ind.J. Med. Res., 11 (1923), 449-73. Crissey, J. T. Bedbugs an old problem with a new dimension. Int. J. Dermatol., 20 (1981), 411-14. Dickerson, G. and M. M. J. Lavoipierre. Studies on the methods...

Medical injury

Most orders of insects and other arthropods contain species that have medical importance, either because they bite, sting, suck blood, transmit parasites and pathogens, or because they induce allergies, delusional parasitosis, or entomophobia. No medically importantpesthas an exclusively urban distribution all occur in urban and natural habitats, to a greater or lesser degree. However, when these pests occur in or around the living space or workplace, their importance increases and control actions are more common. Arthropods with the highest pest status are those that inflict a painful bite, sting, or suck blood (whether painfully or not). Although they may present only a limited health risk, their presence is not tolerated. The most common ofthese worldwide include head louse, scabies mite, bed bugs, and spiders. Bites, stings, and blood-sucking arthropods Bed bugs, scabies, and lice occur naturally in the human population, and at all socioeconomic levels around the world. People...

Cimicidae

Figure Cimex

Cimicids are characterized by a short head that is broadly attached to the prothorax, an oval body, and well-developed eyes. Adults are 3-13 mm long and 3-5 mm broad, yellowish brown to reddish brown, and their body is somewhatflattened. They are wingless, but have small wing pads. Antennae are four-segmented, and the three-segmented proboscis rests in a groove beneath the head and thorax. Nymphs and adult males and females are obligate feeders on vertebrate blood. They are temporary ectoparasites on bats, birds that roost together in small to large numbers, and people. Included in this family are the bed bugs, swallow bug, pigeon bug, and poultry bug. These insects live in cracks and crevices separately from their hosts, and move to the host for periodic blood meals. Large populations ofcimicids develop when conditions and suitable hosts are available. These bugs are distributed worldwide, but mostly in the tropics and subtropics. Bed bugs have been closely associated with humans for...

AIDS and Insects

Several years ago, people hypothesised possible transmission of the HIV by mosquitoes (Jolivet, 1991). Can arthropods really carry retroviruses We all know that many viruses are transmitted by Diptera or flies, namely arboviruses, and viruses causing yellow fever, dengue haemorrhagic or not, various types of encephalitis (Japanese, equine, St Louis, Nile, Venezolana etc.), and to this list may be added non viral diseases such as malaria, due to a parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium, various nematodes, etc. Let us note that, in the case of yellow fever for instance, the virus does not undergo any developmental change inside the mosquito, but simply multiplies itself as in a test tube filled with a culture medium. Bedbugs do not seem to transmit diseases, but Diptera, like Ceratopogonidae or Simulium, transmit viruses and worms to man and to various mammals. And lice, fleas and many other insects are also disease carriers. People thought that, if many viruses multiply in a mosquito and are...