Know Your Healthy Berries

Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

Get My Free Ebook


Description and biology

The whooping crane is so named because of its whooping, trumpet-like call. The tallest North American bird, it stands 5 feet (1.5 meters) tall and weighs almost 16 pounds (7.2 kilograms). It has an average wingspan of 7.5 feet (2.3 meters). This marsh or wetland bird has a snowy-white body, white wings marked with black tips, long dark legs, black feet, a red face, and a long, pointed yellow bill. Its diet consists of crabs, crayfish, frogs, rodents, insects, berries, and small birds.

Tephritid Fruit Flies of Economic Importance

Increased importation of fruit and vegetables from other countries and between states has magnified considerably the probability of populations becoming established. For example, in 2000 the California Department of Food and Agriculture declared an exterior quarantine for 100 fruits, vegetables and berries (including such common items as blackberries, figs, citrus, bell pepper, and tomato) from the areas in the State of Florida

The Remaining Endopterygote Orders

All Cephoidea are included in the family CEPHIDAE (stem sawflies), a largely Eurasian group of about 100 species. Larvae bore into the stems of grasses and berries. Some species are of considerable economic importance, for example, Cephus cinctus, the wheat stem sawfly (Figure 10.25), and Janus integer, which bores in the stems of currants.

Australian Awipm Research and Development for Fruit Fly Pests

Within plantation (1) protein baiting in harvest season (October - March), (2) cuelure traps on 400-metre grid, (3) MAT caneite blocks at four blocks per hectare, (4) strategic cover sprays with dimethoate based on trap captures, (5) removal of fruit fly hosts within plantation (peaches), and (6) larval searches in blueberries and raspberries throughout the year. The following results were obtained (1) the combination of perimeter baiting with MAT caneite blocks reduced the ratio of the number of flies trapped outside the plantation perimeter to that inside the plantation from 1 1 at the start of the programme (September 1998) to 3 1 by March 1999, and to 12 1 by November 2002, (2) reduced number of applications of dimethoate from every seven to every 21 days (studies showed extended anti-fruit fly efficacy in blueberries), (3) new, organically-certified toxicant for protein baits (GF120-active ingredient spinosad) tested for

Urticating Caterpillars

Six species ofurticating slug caterpillars occur in North America. The most commonly encountered is the saddleback caterpillar (Sibine stimulea). It is easily recognized by a dorsal, brown oval spot with a white border, in turn surrounded by a green area suggesting a saddle and saddle blanket (Fig. 18.8). Urticating hairs are borne on two pairs of large, dark brown, fleshy protuberances (Fig, 18.4J), one pair at each end, and on smaller prominences along the sides. In addition, two pairs of rounded lobes bearing specialized, deciduous setae called calytropes that cause irritation to the skin are located at the caudal end. The stinging reaction consists of a burning sensation and an erythematous lesion which is usually much less severe than that of the puss caterpillar. The saddleback caterpillar is found on oaks, elms, dogwoods, linden, corn, ixora, asters, blueberries, grapes, and a number of fruit trees such as apple, citrus, pear, plum, and banana.

Biological Control Through Augmentation

Outdoor releases of several species of predators and para-sitoids are regularly made by growers in various countries. Egg parasitoids in the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) have been used extensively throughout the twentieth century to suppress pest weevils and caterpillars in cotton, corn, and sugarcane, especially in China, Russia, and tropical sugar-producing countries. Predators of mealybugs for release on citrus crops in parts of California have been reared by a growers' cooperative since 1926. One of the more common current uses of augmentative biological control on outdoor crops is the release of various species of predatory phytoseiid mites for control of pest spider mites, an approach that has been used most often with strawberries and with foliage plants grown outdoors in shade houses. outdoor crops The scientific use of augmentative natural enemy releases in outdoor crops is best established in northern Europe for control of European corn borer (Ostrinia...

Other ambrosia beetles Monarthrum fasciatum M mali

Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Adults are 1.6-2.5 mm long and dark brown to blackish brown the body is setose. Eggs are laid in tunnels gnawed by the female in ripening coffee berries on the bush females oviposit up to 20 eggs in one berry. Larvae complete development and pupate in the berry after drying and in the produce store. Adults are found in the productor atvarious locations in the store. This species also attacks beans. A related species, H. liberiensis, attacks maize in Nigeria, Africa.

Secondary plant substances

Because of their ecological role, secondary plant substances can be classified as 'allelochemics', a term coined by Whittaker. An allelochemic is defined as a 'non-nutritional chemical produced by an individual of one species that affects the growth, health, behaviour, or population biology of another species'.290 Contrary to what the adjective suggests, secondary plant substances play a primary ecological role in plants. In contrast to the relative monotony of their primary metabolic profiles, plants produce an astonishing array of secondary metabolites (Fig. 4.1). Even one single plant species may produce an extensive pharmacopeia of recondite chemicals. Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), for instance, contains more than 100 different monoterpenoid indole alkaloids,38 and the berries of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) accumulate more than 200 different aglycones conjugated to glucose.237 Because of the large number of secondary compounds in a plant species, and the many enzymatic steps...

Forfcula auricularia

European earwigs and people This species is not considered to be much of a pest in Europe, but in the United States they will attack flower crops, butterfly bushes, hollyhocks, lettuce, strawberries, celery, potatoes, sweet corn, roses, seedling beans and beets, and grasses. They are considered helpful when they eat aphids and other plant pests.

Polydesmus angustus

Flat-backed millipedes eat roots, dead leaves, and other bits of decayed plant materials, as well as strawberries and other fruits. (Illustration by Amanda Humphrey. Reproduced by permission.) Diet They eat roots, dead leaves, and other bits of decayed plant materials, as well as strawberries and other fruits.

June Beetles

June beetles, sometimes called May beetles or june bugs, are heavy-bodied, brownish, plant-feeding scarab beetles (Fig. 1A). Almost all species are nocturnal in their habits. The adults are voracious feeders on leaves of many deciduous trees, shrubs, and some herbaceous plants. Their larvae, called white grubs, develop in the soil, where they feed on plant roots and can be pests of turf and pasture grasses, young nursery stock, corn, small grains, potatoes, strawberries, and other agricultural crops.

Life Cycle

From the soil, virgin females emit a volatile sex pheromone that attracts clusters of males. Subsequent matings occur on food plants. The beetles typically feed from the upper surface of leaves, chewing out the tissue between the veins and leaving a lacelike skeleton. Adults also feed on petals of flowers such as roses, and on developing fruits or berries. Food plants growing in sunny locations are preferred. Usually the beetles begin to feed on foliage near the top of a plant, regardless of its height. They often aggregate on particular shoots or plants. This phenomenon results from both sexes being attracted to blends of aromatic volatile compounds released from beetle-damaged leaves. Despite the beetles' broad host range, some plant species are rarely or never fed upon. Closely related cultivars within species may also differ in susceptibility. Resistance probably results from presence of feeding deterrents (e.g., certain phenolics) or other secondary plant compounds. Some plants...