Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors'

contributions appear.

Peter H. Adler (185), Department of Entomology, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0365, USA

Roger D. Akre (383), Deceased, formerly Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-6382, USA

Richard J. Brenner (29), USDA-ARS, Office of Technology Transfer, Beltsville, Maryland 20705; formerly USDA-ARS, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida 32604, USA

E. Paul Catts (317), Deceased, formerly Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-6382, USA

Lance A. Durden (1, 45, 103), Georgia Southern University, Institute of Arthropod and Parasitology, Statesboro, Georgia 30460, USA

Woodbridge A. Foster (203), Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1220, USA

Reid R. Gerhardt (127), Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37901-1071, USA

Raj K. Gupta (147), Headquarters, USAMRC, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-5012, USA

Robert D. Hall (127), Department of Entomology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA

William L. Krinsky (67, 87, 303), Department Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale Medical School, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8034, USA

Robert S. Lane (517), Division of Insect Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA

John E. Lloyd (349), Department of Entomology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071, USA

John W. McCreadie (185), Department of Biology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama 36688, USA

Roger D. Moon (279), Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA

Gary R. Mullen (1, 163, 317, 425, 427, 449), Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA

Bradley A. Mullens (263), Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA

William L. Nicholson (517), Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA

Barry M. OConnor (449), University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA

Hal D. Reed (383), Biology Department, Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74171, USA

William K. Reisen (15), Arbovirus Field Station, University of California, Bakersfield, California 93312, USA

Louis C. Rutledge (147), Mill Valley, California 94941-3420, USA

Daniel E. Sonenshine (517), Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 235290266, USA

Scott A. Stockwell (411), U. S. Army, 25th Medical Detachment (Entomology), Fort Hood, Texas 76544, USA

Robert Traub (103), Deceased, formerly Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Edward D. Walker (203), Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA

This book is the result of the recognized need for an up-to-date, entomologically oriented textbook for teaching courses in medical and veterinary entomology at the college and university level. It was initiated in 1993 by Section D (Medical and Veterinary Entomology) of the Entomological Society of America, following surveys that were conducted to identify the scope and format of such a book that would best meet the needs for classroom instruction. The clear sentiment was to produce a comprehensive textbook covering both medical and veterinary entomology, recognizing the close relationship between these two disciplines. The individuals polled indicated a strong preference for organizing the chapters taxonomically according to the insect and related-arthropod groups involved, similar to that followed in W. B. Herms's original Medical and Veterinary Entomology, published in 1915. That classic work, and the seven editions that followed, served as the standard textbook for medical and veterinary entomology students for more than sixty years, until its last printing in 1979. It is hoped that this book will help to fill the void that has persisted these past two decades in promoting the teaching of medical and veterinary entomology as an important part of college and university curricula.

With the exception of the first two chapters (Introduction and Epidemiology of Vector-Borne Diseases), the chapters are similarly organized with the following major subheadings: Taxonomy, Morphology, Life History, Behavior and Ecology, Public Health Importance, Veterinary Importance, Prevention and Control, and References and Further Reading. This format should be helpful to the reader in locating specific information and to teachers who wish to assign only select portions of a chapter for their students to read. It is also for this reason that the discussions of Public Health Importance and Veterinary Importance are addressed separately. This should maximize the flexibility in using this as a textbook for courses in either medical or veterinary entomology, or for courses in which the two disciplines are combined.

Literature citations generally have been kept to a minimum throughout the text to make the book as readable and student-friendly as possible. The authors were asked to follow a guideline of providing 45—50 references for each chapter, selecting only those that are particularly pertinent or serve as recommended follow-up sources for additional information relating to the chapter subject. Exceptions were made for some of the longer chapters (e.g., Mosquitoes, Mites, and Ticks) in which the number of references and suggested readings significantly exceeds the guideline, reflecting the breadth and importance of these particular arthropod groups.

In addition to students in the traditional sense, this book is targeted at a much broader audience, including: (1) entomologists in general; (2) specialists in other disciplines who have an interest in arthropods of medical or veterinary importance; (3) physicians, nurses, health officials, and others in the medical field who encounter insects, spiders, scorpions, ticks, and other arthropods in the course of their professional activities; (4) personnel in a variety of public health- and community-related programs (e.g., mosquito control, tick control) and professional pest control operators who wish to have an informative, readable reference source on their shelf;

(5) military personnel who have responsibility for dealing with a diversity of entomologically related problems;

(6) and veterinarians, wildlife personnel, zoological park officials, and other individuals in animal health-related fields who invariably encounter insects and related arthropods in their respective lines of work.

Traditionally, medical and veterinary entomology has included not only insects but also certain arachnid groups that can present problems for humans and other animals. This book follows that tradition. However, unlike most other books in this subject area, a greater amount of attention is given to these eight-legged relatives of insects in this work. Fully one-quarter of the text is devoted to arachnids, with separate chapters on scorpions, solpu-gids, spiders, mites, and ticks. In fact, the chapters on mites and ticks (note: ticks are simply a subgroup of mites) represent the first and third largest chapters in the book, respectively, reflecting their diversity and medical-veterinary importance. Mosquitoes are the subject of the second largest chapter, as the most important group of insects from a medical and public health perspective.

In providing appropriate balance to the insect groups discussed, the reader may be surprised to see separate chapters on the Coleoptera (beetles) and Lepidoptera

(moths and butterflies). These two groups are not the first that come to mind when one thinks of medical and veterinary entomology and typically are treated only briefly, if at all, in most medical-veterinary books. However, as the space devoted to these groups indicates, the beetles and moths and the problems they cause deserve more attention than they are generally accorded.

We wish to acknowledge the loss of three contributors to this book who passed away after submitting, or contributing to, the initial and one or more revised drafts of their chapters. They are Roger D. Akre and E. Paul Catts of the Department of Entomology, Washington State University, and the late Robert Traub of Bethesda, Maryland. In recognition of their contributions, the respective chapters appropriately bear their names as authors, albeit posthumously. This book is dedicated to the memory of these distinguished entomologists.

Gary R. Mullen Lance A. Durden

Many people have helped in various ways with the preparation of this textbook and we are grateful to all of them. Foremost, we must thank all of the chapter authors who wrote their assigned chapters and patiently accommodated our editorial requests, comments, guidelines, and also responded to comments furnished by outside reviewers. Obviously, without the commitment and dedication of the chapter authors, this project could not have come to fruition.

Rebecca L. Nims (Auburn University, Alabama and Georgia Southern University, Statesboro) was contributing art editor and expertly captured the majority of the figures as digital images and then digitally labeled and improved many of them; she also prepared original figure 23.2. Margo A. Duncan (Gainesville, Florida) was commissioned to prepare original or composite pen and ink drawings for the following figures: 2.1, 2.3, 4.6, 4.8, 7.3, 18.1 A, and 18.4. We also wish to thank the following individuals who contributed original artwork in the form of line drawings, with the respective figure numbers indicated in parentheses following their institutional affiliations: the late Dr. E. Paul Catts (Washington State University, Pullman; 16.1-16.9, 16.11, 16.13-16.15, 16.17,16.20,16.23,16.26,16.31, 16.32,16.35,16.36, 16.39), Dr. Woodbridge A. Foster (The Ohio State University, Columbus; 12.14), Susan J. M. Hope (Mebane, North Carolina; 13.1), Takumasa Kondo (Auburn University, Alabama; 8.9), Dr. William L. Krinsky (Yale Medical School, New Haven, Connecticut; 5.6), Dr. Roger D. Moon (University of Minnesota, St. Paul; 14.2), Dr. Bradley A. Mullens (University of California, Riverside; 13.3), Dr. Blair J. Sampson (USDA-ARS, Small Fruit Research Center, Poplarville, Mississippi; 19.5), and Dr. Lawrence W. Zettler (Illinois College, Jacksonville; 11.2).

We are grateful to the following persons for providing original photographs, slides, and other illustrations reproduced in this book, with the respective figure numbers indicated in parentheses: Dr. W. V. Adams, Jr. (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge; 13.11), Dr. Peter H. Adler (Clemson University, South Carolina; 11.1, 11.5), the late Dr. Roger D. Akre (Washington State University, Pullman; 19.9, 19.14, 19.15, 19.24); Dr. Hans Banziger (Chaing Mai University, Thailand; 18.18-18.23), Dr. Yehuda Braverman (Kimron Veterinary Institute, Israel; 10.19), Dr. Alberto B. Broce (Kansas State University, Manhattan; 14.7), Dr. Corrie Brown (Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Plum Island, New York and University of Georgia, Athens; 10.16), Dr. Jerry F. Butler (University of Florida, Gainesville; 18.13,19.13, 23.25, 23.40,23.43), Dr. James D. Castner (University of Florida, Gainesville; 3.3-3.11), Dr. Ronald D. Cave (Escuela Agricola Panamericana, Zamorano, Honduras; 16.25), Valerie J. Cervenka, (University of Minnesota, St. Paul; 14.22), Dr. Jack Kelly Clark (University of California, Davis; 24.16), Dr. George H. D'Andrea (Alabama State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn; 10.14), Dr. Debbie R. Folkerts (Auburn University, Alabama; 21.1), Dr. Woodbridge A. Foster (The Ohio State University, Columbus; 12.14, 12.17, 12.19, 12.25, 12.27, 12.31), Dr. Ellis G. Greiner (University of Florida, Gainesville; 11.8), Dr. Martin Hall (The Natural History Museum, London; 16.37), Dr. Robert G. Hancock (Cumberland College, Williamsburg, Kentucky; 12,23), Dr. Carl C. Hansen (National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.; 18.12), Dr. Elton J. Hansens (Asheville, North Carolina; 4.12, 4.13, 7.14, 13.6, 14.12, 19.12, 19.30, 23.11), Dr. Charles M. Hendrix,

(Auburn University, Alabama; 23.48, 23.60), Dr. Nancy

C. Hinkle (University of California, Riverside and University of Georgia, Athens; 4.14,7.7-7.10), Paul M. Horton (Clemson University, South Carolina; 19.28), Lacy L. Hyche (Auburn University, Alabama; 18.15), Dr. Robert J. Keiffer (University of California, Hopland; 24.15), Takumasa Kondo (Auburn University, Alabama; 19.23), Peter J. Landolt (USDA-ARS, Wapato, Washington), Dr. Robert S. Lane (University of California, Berkeley; 24.13, 24.19), Lloyd L. Lauerman (Alabama State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn; 10.8-10.11), Dr. Kriangkrai Lerthudsnee (Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 12.20), Dr. John E. Lloyd (University of Wyoming, Laramie; 4.15, 17.2, 17.6, 17.10-17.12), Dr. John M. MacDonald (Auburn University, Alabama; 23.45, 23.46, 23.54), the late Dr. Sturgis McKeever (Georgia Southern University, Statesboro; 13.4, 13.13, 16.18, 18.6, 18.8, 18.11, 18.14, 18.17, 22.13, 22.17), Dr. Hendrik J. Meyer (North Dakota State University, Fargo; 14.18, 14.21, 14.23), Dr. Roger D. Moon (University of Minnesota, St. Paul; 14.19), Dr. Gary R. Mullen (Auburn University, Alabama; 5.14, 6.9, 10.4, 10.5, 10.12, 14.20, 16.19, 18.7, 19.8, 19.19-19.22, 19.29, 22.12, 22.19), Dr. Bradley A. Mullens (University of California, Riverside; 10.2, 13.7), Dr. Harold

D. Newson (Michigan State University, East Lansing; 12.34, 12.36), Dr. Yoshiro Ohara (Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 13.10), Dr. Jonathan D. Patterson (Michigan State University, East Lansing; 12.35), the late Dr. L. L. Pechuman (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York; 13.5), Dr. Hal C. Reed (Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, Oklahoma; 19.18, 19.31), Ross Ritter (Potter Valley, California; 24.14), Mary Elizabeth Rogers (Waukegan, Illinois; 10.17), Dr. William S. Romoser (The Ohio State University, Columbus; 12.20), Dr. Justin O. Schmidt (Carl Hayden Bee Research Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona; 19.4, 19.27), Dr. Philip J. Scholl (USDA-ARS, Lincoln, Nebraska; 16.34), Dr. Scott A. Stockwell (US Army, 25th Medical Detachment, Fort Hood, Texas; 20.1, 20.7, 20.8), Dr. Daniel R. Suiter (University of Georgia, Griffin; 3.2), Dr. Robert B. Tesh (University of Texax Medical Branch, Galveston; 5.4), P. Kirk Visscher (University of California, Riverside; 10.6), Dr. Laurel L. Walters (Lieen-Follican Research, Bishop, California; 9.7), and Dr. Ralph E. Williams (Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana; 14.17).

In addition, we express our appreciation to these individuals who assisted in the preparation of figures or in other ways provided illustrations from which the figures that appear in this book were selected: Dr. Anne-Marie Callcott (USDA-APHIS, Gulfport, Mississippi), Dr. Randy Davidson (Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, University of Georgia, Athens), Dr. Harold J. Harlon (Crownsville, Maryland), Dr. Sidney Kunz

(U.S. Livestock Insects Laboratory, USDA/ARS, Kerrville, Texas), Dr. Peter Landolt (USDA-ARS, Wapato, Washington), Dr. Donald G. Manley (Pee Dee Research and Education Center, Florence, South Carolina), Dr. Leonard E. Munstermann (Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut), Dr. Edward T. Schmidtmann (USDA-ARS, Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Laboratory, Laramie, Wyoming) and Dr. Bryce Walton (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania). Additional figure and illustration credits are provided throughout the book.

We are especially grateful to the following individuals who served as external reviewers or provided advice for one or more of the chapters or chapter sections: Dr. John R. Anderson (Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven), Renee Anderson (Auburn University, Alabama), Dr. Arthur G. Appel (Auburn University, Alabama), the late Dr. Ross H. Arnett (formerly of Gainesville, Florida), Matt Aubuchon (Auburn University, Alabama), Dr. Hans Banziger (Chaing Mai University, Thailand), Dr. Alberto B. Broce (Kansas State University, Manhattan), Dr. Richard L. Brown (Mississippi State University, Mississippi), Dr. John Burger (University of New Hampshire, Durham), Dr. John B. Campbell (University of Nebraska, North Platte), Dr. Bruce M. Christensen (University of Wisconsin, Madison), Dr. G. B. Edwards (Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville), Dr. Richard G. Endris (Schering Plough, Union, New Jersey), Dr. Marc Epstein (U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.), Dr. Richard D. Fell (Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg), Dr. Howard Frank (University of Florida, Gainesville), Dr. Reid R. Gerhardt (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Dr. M. Lee Goff (University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Chaminade University, Honolulu), Dr. Ellis C. Greiner (University of Florida, Gainesville), Dr. William L. Grogan (Salisbury State University, Maryland), Dr. Duane J. Gubler (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado), the late Dr. William L. Hardy (formerly at the University of California, Berkeley), Dr. Cluff E. Hopla (University of Oklahoma, Norman), Dr. James A. House (USDA-APHIS, Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Plum Island, New York), Dr. Lawrence J. Hribar (Florida Keys Mosquito Control District, Marathon), Dr. Gregg J. Hunt (USDA/ARS, Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Laboratory, Laramie, Wyoming), Lacy L. Hyche (Auburn University, Alabama), Dr. James E. Keirans (Georgia Southern University, Statesboro), Dr. Robert R Killick-Kendrick (Imperial College at Silwood Park, Ascot, England), Dr. Katherine M. Kocan (Oklahoma State University, Stillwater), Dr. Elliot S. Krafsur (Iowa State University, Ames), Dr. Daniel C. Kurtak (Chewelah, Washington), Dr. Phillip G. Lawyer

(Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland), Dr. Robert E. Lewis (Ames, Iowa), Dr. John E. Lloyd (University of Wyoming, Laramie), Dr. Timothy J. Lysyk (Agriculture Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta), Dr. Adrian G. Marshall (University of Aberdeen, Scotland), Dr. Robert Minckley (University of Utah, Salt Lake City), Dr. Roger D. Moon (University of Minnesota, St. Paul), Dr. Charles D. Morris (Winter Haven, Florida), Dr. Bradley A. Mullens (University of California, Riverside), Dr. Roy A. Norton (State University of New York, Syracuse), Dr. Richard S. Patterson (Gainesville, Florida), Michelle Perdue (Auburn University, Alabama), Dr. Peter V. Perkins (Gainesville, Florida), Dr. Robert V. Peterson (Monte L. Bean Life Sciences Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah), Dr. Oscar J. Pung (Georgia Southern University, Statesboro), Dr. Sarah E. Randolph (University of Oxford, England), Dr. William C. Reeves, Sr. (University of California, Berkeley), Dr. William K. Reisen (Arbovirus Field Station, University of California, Bakersfield), Dr. Richard G. Rob bins (Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center, Forest Glen Section, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington D.C.), Dr. The Honorable Dame Miriam Rothschild (Ashton Wold, England), Dr. Michael J. Rust (University of California, Riverside), Dr. Raymond E. Ryckman (Redlands, California), Dr. Justin O. Schmidt (Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, Tucson, Arizona), Dr. Edward T. Schmidtmann (USDA-ARS, Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Laboratory, Laramie, Wyoming), Dr. Christopher J. Schofield (London School of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, United Kingdom), Dr. Philip J. Scholl (USDA-ARS, Lincoln, Nebraska), Dr. Craig T. Sheppard (University of Georgia, Coastal Experiment Station, Tifton), Dr. Louis N. Sorkin (American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York), Dr. Scott Stewart (NIH/NAIAD, Hamilton, Montana), Dr. Christine A. Sundermann (Auburn University, Alabama), Dr. Sabina F. Swift (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu), Dr. Pete D. Teel (Texas A & M University, College Station), Dr. Robert B. Tesh (University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston), Dr. Stephen Torr (Natural Resources Institute, Chatham Maritime, England), the late Dr. Robert Traub (formerly of Bethesda, Maryland), Dr. Michael J. Turell (U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland), Dr. William J. Turner (Washington State University, Pullman), Dr. S. Bradleigh Vinson (Texas A & M University, College Station), Dr. Laurel L. Walters (Lieen-Follican Research, Bishop, California), Amelia Williams (Auburn University, Alabama), Dr. Mark L. Wilson (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor), Dr. James

C. Wright (Auburn University, Alabama), Dr. Russell E. Wright (Oklahoma State University, Stillwater), and Dr. David G. Young (Gainesville, Florida).

We are indebted to the following individuals for their assistance in conducting library searches or otherwise providing the authors with relevant literature: Dr. Harold J. Harlan (Crownsville, Maryland), Elizabeth Mason (North Dakota State University, Fargo), Dr. Richard G. Robbins (Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center, Forest Glen Section, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington

D.C.), the late Dr. Robert Traub (formerly of Bethesda, Maryland) and Anne R. Viera (University of Tennessee, Knoxville).

We also would like to thank the staff with whom we have worked at Academic Press/Elsevier Science in San Diego, especially Dr. Charles R. Crumly, Monique Larson, Molly Wofford, and Christine Vogelei.

Emergency Preparedness

Emergency Preparedness

Remember to prepare for everyone in the home. When you are putting together a plan to prepare in the case of an emergency, it is very important to remember to plan for not only yourself and your children, but also for your family pets and any guests who could potentially be with you at the time of the emergency.

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