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and Goniops, many of which are not known to feed on blood, Most of the economically important tabanids are members of the two other subfamilies. Tabanids in the subfamily Chrysopsinae are called deer flies; nearly all are members of the genus Chrysops, which includes more than 80 Nearctic species. The term "deer fly" also is applied to members of the genus Silvius, a few species of which can be quite pestiferous on humans and animals in the western United States.

Members of the Tabaninae are the most evolutionar-ily derived. This subfamily includes the horse flies, represented by Tabanus, which has 107 Nearctic species, and Hybomitra, with 55 Nearctic species. Species of Haematopota, together with Tabanus and Hybomitra, are important pests in the Old World. Only five species of Haematopota occur in the Nearctic region, where Haematopota ctmericana is the only species known to be a pest of mammals.

Burger (1995) compiled a complete catalog of species of Nearctic Tabanidae. Pechuman and Teskey (1981) provide generic keys to larvae, pupae, and adults of Nearctic tabanids. There are several regional keys for identification of adults of North American tabanids at the species level: California (Middlekaufand Lane, 1980), New York (Pechuman, 1981), Illinois (Pechuman et al, 1983), Tennessee (Goodwin et al., 1985), Texas

(Goodwin and Drees, 1996), and Canada and Alaska (Teskey, 1990). Most of these works include valuable information on biology and ecology. Immatures of Nearctic tabanids are more difficult to identify than adults. Many North American species remain undescribed, and the immature stages are less likely to be encountered by the casual collector, Immatures of some species can be identified using keys or references found in Pechuman et al. (1983), Goodwin et al. (1985), and Teskey (1990).

Taxonomic references for other regions include the following: Europe (Chvala et al., 1972), Neotropics (Fairchild, 1986; Fairchiid and Burger, 1994), Australia (Mackerras, 1954), Ethiopian region (Oldroyd, 19541957), the former Soviet Union (Olsufiev, 1977), and japan (Takahasi, 1962). Immature stages of Palearctic Tabanidae are treated by Andreeva (1990).

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