Toxorhynchites ( Tx. )

The classification of all mosquitoes into 3 subfamilies, 10 tribes of Culicinae, and 38 genera is based on Knight and Stone (1977). In parentheses are the two-letter generic abbreviations recognized by the American Mosquito Control Association and used in several journals and books.

The classification of all mosquitoes into 3 subfamilies, 10 tribes of Culicinae, and 38 genera is based on Knight and Stone (1977). In parentheses are the two-letter generic abbreviations recognized by the American Mosquito Control Association and used in several journals and books.

tends to occur in somewhat drier regions than does An. gambiae. Both prefer to bite humans, but An. gambiae is more anthropophilic, endophilic, and endophagic, and therefore it is the more important vector. The Cx. pipiens complex is a ubiquitous group of closely related domestic and peridomestic species. The medically most important taxa worldwide are the temperate species Cx. pipiens, the northern house mosquito, and the tropical and subtropical Cx. quinquefasciatus (= fatigans), the southern house mosquito. Their ranges are overlapping in the central latitudes of the United States, where they commonly hybridize. They are vectors of several human pathogens, such as St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus and lymphatic filariasis. Cx. molestus is a name sometimes applied to a variant of Cx. pipiens, which is facultatively autogenous and often breeds in subterranean water. Cx. paliens, apparently a stable hybrid of Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus, occurs in temperate China and Japan, whereas Cx. globocoxitus and Cx. australicus inhabit Australia.

Several brightly marked Aedes species in the large subgenus Stegomyia are medically important, including Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, has a worldwide distribution in the tropics and subtropics. It is the primary vector of both DEN and urban YF viruses. It exists in at least two forms, aegypti and formosus, considered to be either subspecies or separate species. Ae. aegypti formosus is the original feral form and is found in large parts of interior Africa. It has a black body, develops in tree holes, feeds on a wide variety of animals, and rarely enters houses. It has adapted to some domestic situations in Africa, where it develops in rain-filled containers. Ae. a. aegypti is a paler, brownish-black domestic form. It occurs mainly in coastal regions of Africa and is distributed throughout much of southern Asia and most warmer parts of the New World, including the southern United States. In Africa it has become independent of rain, developing in hand-filled water jars without regard to season. On other continents, where it does not compete with Ae. a. formosus, it utilizes both rain-filled and hand-filled containers. Some authorities recognize a still paler and more domestic type of Ae. a. aegypti as the subspecies Ae. a. queenslandensis, but this is probably only a localized variant.

Ae. albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, is similar to Ae. aegypti, occupies the same kinds of containers, and also transmits DEN virus. It was largely confined to Asia, where it occurs in tropical and subtropical rural settings. It readily oviposits in tree holes. A cold-hardy, egg-diapausing strain of this mosquito has been carried from northern Japan to other parts of the world by the trade in used automobile and truck tires. The first established population was detected in Texas in 1985. It has since spread through much of the southern, central, and eastern United States, including foci in the upper Midwest, much farther north than the nondiapausing Ae. aegypti. It also has gained a foothold in several other parts of the world. In most of its range in the southern United States, Ae. albopictus has replaced Ae. aegypti as the predominant mosquito in artificial containers in suburban and rural environments.

Other important members of the subgenus Stegomyia include Ae. africanus, Ae. bromeliae, and Ae. luteo-ceophalus, which transmit YF virus in parts of Africa, and Ae. polynesiensis and Ae. pseudoscutellaris, which transmit lymphatic filariasis in South Pacific islands.

Keys to the mosquito genera worldwide were provided by Mattingly (1971). Keys for the identification of species of restricted geographical regions are available for most states, provinces, and many countries throughout the world. These include many fine handbooks that also present biological and medical information on individual species. Good examples of statewide handbooks are written for New Jersey (Headlee, 1945), California (Bohart and Washino, 1978), Indiana (Siverly, 1972), Minnesota (Barr, 1958), New York (Means, 1979), Florida (Darsie and Morris, 1998), and Alaska (Gjullin et al., 1961). United States regional handbooks include the southeastern United States (King et al., 1960) and the northwestern states (Stage et al., 1952). Some handbooks include keys to pupae, and the handbook for Illinois (Ross and Horsfall, 1965) is noteworthy in particular for its egg keys.

The most recent comprehensive treatments of North American species are Wood et al. (1979), which contains keys to larvae and adults of Canada, plates of tax-onomic structures for each species, distribution maps, and biological information; and Darsie and Ward (1981), which covers all of North America north of Mexico and has illustrated keys and distribution maps. These works were preceded by Carpenter and LaCasse (1955), which contains formal descriptions, biology, and meticulously crafted full-page plates of adults of each species. A thorough treatment of North American genera was presented by Stone (1981). Other parts of the world covered by notable works include the South Pacific (Belkin, 1962), United Kingdom (Marshall, 1938), the Neotropical Region (Lane, 1953), and Japan and Korea (LaCasse and Yamaguti, 1950). For details on morphological terminology and anatomical features of mosquitoes, Harbach and Knight (1980) is recommended. Members of species complexes are often indistinguishable morphologically. Specialists have overcome some of these problems by using chromosome banding patterns, isozyme profiles, or DNA probes and DNA restriction fragment patterns to distinguish these species from one another. These methods for identification are not yet simple enough, or widely enough available, to be used routinely in field work.

Mosquitoes (Culicidcte)

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