Lice Of Other Livestock Animals

Horses, donkeys, hogs, goats, and sheep are parasitized by one or more species of louse (Tables I and II). Except for hogs, all of these animals are parasitized by both sucking lice and chewing lice. The horse biting louse (B. equi) is the most important louse of equids worldwide. Females of this louse oviposit on fine hairs, avoiding the coarse hairs of the mane and tail. This louse typically infests the side of the neck, the flanks, and tail base but can infest most of the body (except the mane, tail, ears, and lower legs) in severe infestations. Longhaired horse breeds are more prone to infestation by B. equi.

Domestic swine are parasitized by the hog louse (H. suis) (Fig. 4.7E). This is a large species in which adult females measure ca. 5 mm in length. Hog lice usually frequent skin folds of the head (especially the ears), neck, shoulders, and flanks of swine. Female hog lice lay an average of 3.6 eggs per day. These are deposited singly on hairs along the lower parts of the body, in skin folds on the neck, and on and in the ears. Eggs typically hatch 13—15 days later; each nymphal instar lasts 4—6 days. Adult hog louse longevity can be up to 40 days, and 6—15 generations can be completed per year, depending on environmental conditions.

Domestic sheep and goats are parasitized by several species of sucking lice and chewing lice (Tables I and II). One of these, L. africanus, parasitizes both hosts. Lice of sheep and goats, especially chewing lice, are economically important wherever these livestock animals are farmed, but especially in Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. Females of the sheep biting louse (B. ovis) lay one or two eggs per day and can live for up to 30 days; each nymphal instar lasts 5—9 days. B. ovis mainly infests the back and upper parts of the body but may populate the entire body in severe infestations. This louse causes intense irritation, and infested sheep typically rub against fences and trees, tearing the fleece and greatly reducing its value. Sucking louse infestations of sheep rarely cause major economic problems.

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