Life History

The Hippoboscoidea are larviparous. They exhibit a form of viviparity called adenotrophic viviparity. A single egg is passed to the uterus, where it embryonates and hatches. The egg contains sufficient yolk to nourish the embryo until hatching. The two subsequent larval instars remain in the uterus, where they are nourished by a pair of accessory glands, or milk ┬┐lands, that empty into the uterus. The glands are very similar in structure to those in female tsetse flies, although their secretions are slighdy different.

Parturition occurs when the larva is fully developed but prior to formation of the puparium. The term prepupa has been applied to this stage because its structure is similar to that of the third-instar larva. It has ceased to feed, but histolysis of larval organs and formation of the true pupa have not yet started. Shortly after the larva emerges, its integument hardens to form a puparium. In some species, the larva may remain in the uterus until after internal pupal transformations have been initiated. Most puparia are deposited or dropped in the roost, nest, bedding, or elsewhere in proximity to the host. The puparium of the sheep ked is unusual in that it is attached by the female to the fleece of the host. The adult fly emerges after a period of several weeks to several months, depending upon the species and temperature.

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