Life History

Adult females typically require a blood meal in order to develop their eggs (Fig, 10.1A). Some, however, are autogenous and carry over enough nutrients from the larval stage to develop eggs during the first gonotrophic cycle without feeding on blood. Development of the eggs usually requires 7—10 days but may be as short as 2—3 days. The eggs are deposited in batches on moist substrates. The number of eggs per female varies from 30 to 450

FIGURE 10.4 Sampling organically enriched substrate of freshwater marsh for ceratopogonid krvae. (Photo by G. R, Mullen.)

peaks of adult abundance. Some species are abundant only in the spring (e.g., C. biguttatus, C. niger, C. travisi), whereas others may exhibit high spring populations and be present in lower numbers throughout the summer and fell (e.g., C. spinosus). Others tend to be abundant throughout the spring, summer, and fall (e.g., C. crepus-cularis, C. furens, C. haematopotus, C. stellifer; C. venus-tus). Still others are bivoltine, with peaks in the spring and fall (e.g., C. hollensis).

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