Medical And Veterinary Entomology

Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. 303

FIGURE 15.1 Adult tsetse fly (Glossina sp.) on rabbit. (Courtesy of The Rockefeller Foundation.)

Tsetse were formerly included in their own subfamily, Glossininae, or the Stomoxyini of the Muscidae because of the resemblance of tsetse to the stable fly and other biting muscids. However, because of their unique an-tennal structure, tsetse are now placed in their own family, Glossinidae. The reproductive and morphological similarities of tsetse to the keds and other hippo-boscid flies has led to placement of Glossinidae within the Hippoboscoidea (McAlpine, 1989). Glossinidae includes the single genus Glossina with 23 species, 6 of which are further divided into 14 subspecies (Gouteux, 1987; Potts, 1973). Glossina means "tongue fly," in reference to its prominent proboscis. Keys to species and subspecies are included in Jordan (1993). Glossina species are arranged in three subgenera {Austenina, Nemorhina, and Glossina) that correspond roughly with groups of species found in different ecological settings. The subgenera often are cited by their group names, each designated by one of the better-known species in each subgenus, i.e., the fusca group (Austenina), the palpalis group (Nemorbina), and the morsitans group {Glossina). Species in the fusca group are most often found in forested habitats, such as rain, swamp, and mangrove forests. Species in the palpalis group occur among vegetation around lakes and along rivers and streams. The morsitans group, with the exception of the forest-dwelling Glossina austeni, occurs in open country and is most often found in dry thickets, scrub vegetation, and areas of savanna woodland (commonly composed of Berlinia, Isoberlinia, and Brachystegia species).

The geographical distributions of the three taxonomic groups are shown in Fig. 15.2. The palpalis group, which includes G. palpalis, G. tachinoides, G. fuscipes, and two less well known species, occurs primarily along watercourses in western and central Africa. The morsitans group of savanna species, which includes G. morsitans> G. pallidipes, G. longipalpis, G. swynnertoni, and G. austeni, is primarily central and southeastern in distribution. The fusca group, which includes G. fusca, G. taban-iformis, G. medicorum, G. longipennis, G. brevipalpis, and eight other species, is found in forested areas that overlay most of the western and central African distribution of the palpalis group.

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