Other Viral Agents


Several other arboviruses have been isolated from Cuiicoides adults. Four of them are members of the Bunyaviri-dae: Crimean-Congo, Rift Valley fever, and Dugbe and Shuni viruses. In addition, three mosquito-borne viruses which cause eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese B encephalitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis have been isolated from Cuiicoides and Lasiohelea species. There is no evidence, however, to indicate that biting midges play a significant role in transmission of any of these viruses.

Three filarial nematodes in the genus Mansonella cause infestations in humans, called mansonellosis (Table II). Cases occur widely throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old World and New World where Cuiicoides, Forcipomyia, and Leptoconops species serve as arthropod vectors. Although infestations involving these parasites are generally mild or asymptomatic, they sometimes cause serious medical problems.

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