Moth flies breed in aquatic and semiaquatic habitats. Breeding sites of P$ychoda and Telmatoscopus include seashores, margins of streams and ponds, rice fields, ditches, tree holes, sumps, drains, sewers, cesspools, septic tanks, urinals, waste lagoons, sewage treatment plants, and outfalls. The eggs are deposited in gelatinous masses of 20—100 and hatch in about 2 days. The larvae (Fig. 9.3) develop in aquatic surface films, floating algae, mud, manure, and similar wet or moist organic media, where they feed on fungi, microorganisms, and decaying organic matter. The larval period is 9—15 days, and the pupal period is 1—2 days. Larvae of Psychoda alternata are highly tolerant of pollution, low pH, low dissolved oxygen, and high temperatures.

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