References And Further Reading

Beaglehole, R., Bonita, R., and Kjellstrom, T. (1993). Basic epidemiology. World Health Organization, Geneva. Bruce-Chwatt, L. J. (1980). Essential malariology. William Heinemann

Medical Books Ltd., London. Garrett ]ones, C. (1970). Problems of epidemiological entomology as applied to malariology. Misc. Puhl. Entomol. Soc. Am. 7, 168-178. Gregg, M. B. (1988). Epidemiological principles applied to arbovirus diseases. In: The arboviruses: epidemiology and ecology. Vol. 1 (T. P. Monath, ed.),. pp. 292-309. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Herms, W. B. (1961). Medical entomology (5th ed.). Macmillan Co., New York.

Herms, W. B., and James, M. T. (1995). How arthropods cause and carry disease. In: A dictionary of epidemiology (3rd ed., J. M. Last, J. H. Abromson, et al., eds.). pp. 15-26.Oxford University Press, London.

Jawetz, E., Melnick, J. L., and Adieberg, E. A. (1972). Host-parasite relationships. /ยป.-Review of medical microbiology (10th ed., E. Jawetz, J. L. Melnick, and E. A. Adelberg, eds.). pp. 128-135. Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, California. Macdonald, G. (1957). The epidemiology and control of malaria.

Oxford University Press, London. Moore, C. G., McLean, R. G., Mitchell, C. J., Nasci, R. S., Tsai, T. F., Calisher, C. H., Marfin, A. A., Moore, P. S., and Gubler, D. J. (1993). Guidelines for arbovirus surveillance programs in the United States. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Ft. Collins, Colorado. Rice, P. L., and Pratt, H. D. (1992). Epidemiology and control ofvec-torborne diseases. US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service Pub. No. (HMSO) 72-8245.

Cockroaches are among the oldest and most primitive of insects. They evolved about 350 million years ago during the Silurian Period, diverging together with the man-tids from an ancestral stock that also gave rise to termites (Boudreaux 1979). Cockroaches are recognized as the order Blattaria. Although the majority of species are feral and not directly associated with people, a few species have evolved in proximity to human habitations, where they have adapted to indoor environments. Their omnivorous feeding behavior, facilitated by their unspecialized chewing mouthparts, has contributed to a close physical relationship between cockroach populations and humans, with resultant chronic exposure of humans to these pests.

The presence of some species in the home (e.g., German and brownbanded cockroaches) often is an indicator of poor sanitation or substandard housekeeping.

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