Table I

Important Muscid Pests of Humans and Domestic Animals in North America

Ecological group

Common name

Scientific name

Hosts for adults

Filth flies

House fly" Stable fly"

Garbage flies

False stable fly and relatives

Little house fly Latrine fly and relatives

Musca domestica Stomoxys calcitrans

Hydrotaea (= Ophyrah) aenescens,

H. ijjnava * (=Opbyra leueostoma) Muscina stabulans

M. levida ( = assimilisc) Fannin canicularis F. scalaris, F. femoralis

None required

Cow, horse, dog, humans, and others None required

None required

None required

Dung flies

Horn fly" Face fly

Haematobia irritans irritans Musca autumnalis

Cow, bison, horse Cow, bison, horse

Sweat flies

Sweat flies

Hydrotaea meteorica, H. scambus, and others

Large mammals

"Species introduced to North America from the Old World; others are cosmopolitan or native to the New World. b According to Huckett and Vockeroth (1987). 'According to Skidmore (1985).

"Species introduced to North America from the Old World; others are cosmopolitan or native to the New World. b According to Huckett and Vockeroth (1987). 'According to Skidmore (1985).

700 species in 46 genera. Fortunately, only a few of these genera contain important medical or veterinary pests. The important North American taxa are listed in Table I. Five of them have been introduced from the Old World through human commerce. Outside North America, the same species, or close relatives with similar life cycles, habits, and ecology, may be encountered.

Important muscid flies (Table I) occur in two subfamilies, the Muscinae and the Fanniinae. Important nonbit-ing Muscinae are the house fly, the garbage flies, the false stable fly and relatives, the face fly, and the sweat flies. The important biting Muscinae are the stable fly and horn fly. A third biting species in North America, the moose fly (Haematobosca stimulans), formerly Haematobia aids, occurs exclusively on the moose (Alces alces). The second subfamily, the Fanniinae, are represented by the nonbiting little house fly and its relatives (Fannia spp.). Although some authors consider the Fanniinae to be a separate sister family (Fanniidae), it is treated here a subfamily of Muscidae.

Adults and larvae of the North American Diptera can be identified to family using keys in McAlpine et al. (1981), and adult Muscidae can be keyed to genus using McAlpine et al. (1987) and references therein. The Muscidae of North America are cataloged in Stone et al. (1965). Other aids for identification are Skidmore's (1985) keys and descriptions of larvae and pupal cases (puparia) and James' (1947) classic treatment of adults and larvae of flies in Muscidae and other families that cause myiasis.

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