Table Iii

Disease Agents Transmitted by Tabanids

Disease agent

Vectors

Geographic occurrence

Transmission

Viruses

Equine infectious anemia

Bovine leukemia Hog cholera

Bacteria/rickettsia Anaplasma marginale Francisella tularensis Bacillus anthracis

Protozoa

Besnoitia besnoiti

T. vivax

Filarial nematodes Loa loa

Elaeophora schneiden

Chrysops spp.

Tab anus spp. Chrysops spp.

Chrysops spp.

Tabanus, Atylotus spp. Tabanus,

Chrysops spp. Tabanus spp.

Chrysops spp., especially

C. dimidiatus, C. silaceus Hybomitra, Tabanus spp.

Worldwide Worldwide

Worldwide; eradicated from North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa

Worldwide (Tropics, Subtropics) North America, Russia, Japan Worldwide

South America, Southern Europe,

Africa, Asia, South America, North Africa, Asia, India

South America, Africa Central Africa

North America, southern Europe

Mechanical

Mechanical Mechanical

Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical

Mechanical Mechanical

Mechanical

Biological Biological strikes by an animal's tail, feet, or head. Salivary anticoagulants maintain blood flow, sometimes for several minutes after feeding ceases. One such anticoagulant is chrysoptin, a salivary protein which blocks platelet aggregation. It is not unusual for other flies, such as the house fly and face fly, to gather around tabanid feeding wounds to imbibe blood flowing from the wound site.

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