Taxonomy 147 Morphology 148 Life History 150 Behavior And Ecology 150 Public Health Importance 151 Veterinary Importance 158 Prevention And Control 159 References And Further Reading 160

Members of the Psychodidae are primitive Diptera of the suborder Nematocera. The family is widely distributed in natural, agricultural, and urban environments of tropical, subtropical, and temperate climates. Representatives occur in all zoogeographic regions and many terrestrial biomes, including desert, grassland, chaparral, and forest. Some species occur in mountainous regions at high altitudes.

The subfamily Psychodinae includes nonbiting species known as moth flies. Certain species of Psychoda and Tel-matoscopus, known as drainflies or filterflies, are common pests in buildings and in and around sewage treatment plants. Larvae of two species of Psychoda have been implicated in myiasis.

The subfamily Phlebotominae includes biting species known as sand flies. Species of Lutzomyia and Phlehoto-mus are important biting pests and vectors of agents causing sand fly fever, Changuinola fever, vesicular stomatitis, Chandipura virus disease, bartonellosis, and leishmaniasis in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. A source of confusion is that the name "sand fly" is sometimes applied to black flies (family Simuliidae) and biting midges (family Ceratopogonidae). In the vernacular the name "sand flea" is applied to all three groups, in addition to chigoes (true fleas).

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