Taxonomy 163 Morphology 164 Life History 165 Behavior And Ecology 167 Public Health Importance 169 Veterinary Importance 173 Prevention And Control 181 References And Further Reading 182

Biting midges are minute blood-sucking flies represented by only a few of the many genera in the family Cera-topogonidae. They are commonly known as no-see-ums owing to their small size and the fact that they often go unnoticed despite the discomforting bites which they cause. Another name for this group, especially in the northeastern United States, is punkies. It is derived from a Dutch corruption of the Algonquin Indian root "punkwa," which means "ashlike," referring to the appearance of the fly as it is biting. The associated burning sensation is likened to that of a hot ash from a fire on contact with the skin. The early French Canadians called them bruldt, from "bruler," meaning "to burn." They also are called sandflies, particularly in the coastal areas of the southeastern United States, the West Indies, and adjacent parts of the Caribbean and Latin America. This name should not be confused with the same term applied

MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

to phlebotomine flies of the family Psychodidae. Along the Gulf Coast of Alabama and Florida, local residents refer to biting midges as five-O's because of their biting activity which commences late in the afternoon about five o'clock. Other names for biting midges in various parts of the world include moose flies in Alaska, jejenes in Latin America, maruins in Brazil, kuiki in India, maku-nagi and nukaka- in Japan, nyung noi in Laos, agas and merutu in Indonesia, merotoe in Sumatra, and no-no''s in Polynesia.

Biting midges can be annoying pests of humans and both domestic and wild animals. In addition to the discomfort which they cause, biting midges serve as vectors of a number of viruses, protozoans, and nematodes. Among the more important viral diseases are Oropouche fever in humans, bluetongue disease and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) in ruminants, and African horsesickness (AHS) in equines. Blood protozoans transmitted by biting midges cause diseases in poultry, whereas certain nematodes are the cause of mansonellosis in humans and of onchocerciasis in various domestic and wild animals.

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