Taxonomy 349 Morphology 350 Life History 352 Behavior And Ecology 352 Common Species Of Hippoboscids 352 Public Health Importance 356 Veterinary Importance 357 Prevention And Control 359 References And Further Reading 360

The Families Hippoboscidae, Streblidae, and Nycteribi-idae are obligate, blood-feeding ectoparasites. The Hip-poboscidae are variously called louse flies, bird flies, feather flies, spider flies, flat flies, tick flies, ked flies, and keds. Most species in this family are restricted to a narrow range of hosts. Approximately three-fourths of the known species are ectoparasites of birds, whereas the remainder occur on a variety of mammals other than bats. The Streblidae, called the streblid bat flies or bat flies, and the Nyc-teribiidae, called the nycteribiid bat flies or spider-like bat flies, are ectoparasites of bats and are rarely encountered except by individuals working with bats. For further information on the Hippoboscoidea, the reader is referred to the monographs and other works by Bequaert (1942,

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1953-1957), Maa (1963, 1966, 1969, 1971), Maa and Peterson (1987), Theodor and Oldroyd (1964), Peterson and Wenzel (1987), and Wenzel and Peterson (1987).

Although worldwide in distribution, most species of Hippoboscidae are tropical and subtropical in both the Old and New Worlds. The Paleotropics are richer in hip-poboscids than any other region. Some hippoboscids may be temporary summer residents of temperate regions due to the migratory habits of their hosts. A few species (e.g., the "grouse fly" Ornithomya fringillina) are restricted to temperate regions.

The Streblidae are largely New World and tropical and subtropical in distribution. Relatively few species occur in the warm temperate zones. Most members of the Nycteribiidae are found in the Old World and occur primarily in the tropical and subtropical regions.

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