The order Diptera is divided by most authorities into two suborders: the Nematocera and the Brachycera (Table III). The Nematocera are typified by mosquitoes and other flies with conspicuously long antennae. The Brachycera include horse flies, deer flies, house flies, and other flies with short antennae. The Brachycera are subdivided into three infraorders: Tabanomorpha, including the horse flies and deer flies; Asilomorpha, robber flies and their relatives, which are generally of no medical or veterinary concern; and Muscomorpha, or "circular-seamed" flies, often called Cyclorrhapha. The Muscomorpha infraorder in turn is divided into the Aschiza and Schizophora, and the latter is divided into two sections:

FIGURE 8.1 Representative head capsule of nematoceran larva, with opposable mandibles; chironomid midge (Chironomidae), ventral view. (Redrawn from Merritt and Cummins, 1996.)

FIGURE 8.2 Lateral view of anterior part of Tabanus margina&Urvs (Tabanidae), showing incomplete head capsule and vertical, fanglike mouth hook. (Prom McAJpine etal., 1981b.)

the Acalyptratae and Calyptratae. This taxonomic scheme is essentially that proposed by McAJpine ct al. (1981b) and followed by Borror et ctl. (1989), A catalog of the Diptera of America north of Mexico is provided by Stone etal. (1965).

Various keys are available for identifying adult flies. Keys to the families and genera of most Nearctic Diptera are presented in McAJpine (1981a). The flies of western North America are treated by Cole (1969). The key in Borror etal. (1989) is adequate for identification of most North American Diptera to the family level. The larvae of many Diptera can be identified to family with the aid of Teskey (1981a) and Foote (1991); those of synanthropic species are treated by Dusek (1971). Furman and Catts (1982) present a very usable key to both adults and larvae of medically important flies, particularly in the United States, and James (1947) covers flies that cause myiasis in humans. For identification of taxa outside the Nearctic Region, students should refer to Lindner's (1949) series on Palearctic Diptera and to Zumpt (1965) for Old World myiasis-causing flies.

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