Taxonomy

The vast majority of species involved in myiasis are members of two superfamilies and six families of calypterate flies: Muscoidea (Anthomyiidae, Fanniidae, and Musci-dae) and Oestroidea (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Oestridae). A dozen other families in eight superfamilies include species reported to cause myiasis; however, with the exception of the nest skipper fly (Neottiphilidae) and 10 species of Australian frog flies (Chloropidae), these cause accidental myiasis only. In contrast, all species of bot flies (Oestridae) cause obligatory myiasis. Myiasis-causing species among the muscids, calliphorids, and sar-cophagids are typically facultative or obligatory myiasis producers. Table I shows the taxonomic relationships and associated types of myiasis for those flies known to invade living hosts.

The Anthomyiidae are a large family with more than 100 genera worldwide. Although members are called root maggot flies, the larvae occur in a wide range of habitats other than roots. Cladistically, the fanniids are a sister group to the muscids and often are included as a subfamily of the Muscidae. Most muscids are house fly—like in appearance, having a rather drab coloration, with dorsal longitudinal stripes on the thorax. Muscidae is a very large family with worldwide distribution that includes species typically associated with excrement and decaying plant matter.

Myiasis (Muscoidea, Oestroidea.) 319

Taxonomic Relationships of Flies Known to Cause Myiasis: The Types of Myiasis in Each Case Are Indicated in Parentheses as Accidental (A), Facultative (F), or Obligatory (O)

Superfamilies and families

Common names

Genera and species

Type of myiasis

Tipuloidea Tipulidae

Psychodoidea Psychodidae

Stratiomyoidea Stratiomyidae

Asiloidea Therevidae

Platypezoidea Phoridae

Syrphoidea Syrphidae

Tephritoidea Piophilidae Neottiophilidae

Ephydroidea Drosophilidae Chioropidae

Muscoidea Anthomyiidae Fanniidae

Muscidae

Oestroidea Calliphoridae

Crane flies Moth flies Black soldier fly Stiletto flies

Humpback flies, scuttle flies

Flower flies

Cheese skipper fly Nest skipper fly

Pomace flies, fruit flies Australian frog flies

Anthomyiid flies Lesser house fly Latrine fly House fly

False stable fly

Tropical nest flies Tropical nest flies Neotropical nest flies

Green bottle flies

Blue bottle flies

Black blow fly Primary screwworm Secondary screwworm Old World screwworm,

Bird blow flies Tumbu fly

Unspecified

Hermetia illucens

Thereva sp.

Megaselia (3 spp.)

Eristalis (2 spp.)

Piophila casei Neottiophilum praeustrum

Drosophila melanogaster Batrachomyia (10 spp.)

F. scalaris Musca domestica

Muscina stabulans Muscina (2 spp.) Hydrotaea rostrata Passeromyia (3 spp.) Mydaea (25 spp.) Neomusca (Philornis (35 SPP.)

spp.

Lucilia spp. Phaenicia spp. Calliphora spp. Eucalliphora spp. Paralucilia sp. Protophormia sp. Cynomya sp. Phormia regina Cochliomyia hominivorax C. macellaria Chrysomya bezziana Chrysomya (9 spp.) Protocalliphora («90 spp.)

Gastrointestinal (A)

Gastrointestinal (A)

Gastrointestinal (A)

Gastrointestinal (A)

Gastrointestinal (A), traumatic (F)

Gastrointestinal (A)

Gastrointestinal (A) Cutaneous (O)

Gastrointestinal (A) Cutaneous (O)

Gastrointestinal (A)

Gastrointestinal, urogenital, traumatic (A)

Gastrointestinal, urogenital, traumatic (A) Gastrointestinal, traumatic (A) Gastrointestinal, traumatic (A) Gastrointestinal, traumatic (A)

Cutaneous (O) Cutaneous (O) Cutaneous (O)

Traumatic, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, nasopharyngeal Traumatic, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, nasopharyngeal auricular (F)

Traumatic, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, nasopharyngel auricular (F)

Traumatic (O) Traumatic (F) Traumatic (O) Traumatic (F) Traumatic (O) Traumatic (O)

TABLE I (Continued )

Superfamilies and families

Common names

Genera and species

Type of myiasis

Gasterophilinae

Stomach bot flies

5 genera, 15 spp.

Gastrointestinal (O)

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