Vesicular Stomatitis

Three serotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus (Rhabdoviri-dae: Vesiculovirus) that cause febrile disease in humans are believed to be transmitted by sand flies. The Alagoas, Indiana, and New Jersey serotypes axe widely distributed in tropical and temperate areas of North and South America and have been repeatedly isolated from L. shannoni, L. trapidoi, L. ylephiletor, and unidentified sand flies. L. shannoni is a proven vector of the New Jersey serotype among feral pigs on Ossabaw Island, GA. Transovarial transmission has been demonstrated in several species of sand flies, including L. shannoni, L. trapidoi, and L. ylephiletor.

Vesicular stomatitis virus has been isolated from a number of biting and nonbiting insects, in addition to sand flies. Repeated isolations have been made from black flies (Simuliidae), and outbreaks of the disease in cattle have been associated with high populations of black flies. Laboratory-infected Simulium vittatum transmit the virus to mice experimentally.

Symptoms of vesicular stomatitis in humans are similar to those of sand fly fever. Opossums, monkeys, porcupines, raccoons, bobcats, horses, pronghorns, cattle, sheep, and swine are suspected reservoirs. Antibodies occur in domestic and wild dogs.


Causative agent

Geographic distribution


Sand fly vectors

Sand fly fever

Sand fly fever virus (Alenquer,

Panama, Colombia

Rodents, Primates

Lutzomyia trapidoi,

(New World)

Candiru, Chagres, Punta Toro serotypes)

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