Veterinary Importance 287 Public Health Importance 290 Veterinary Importance 293 Prevention And Control 298 References And Further Reading 300

The family Muscidae includes significant blood-feeding parasites, vectors of disease agents, and species that simply annoy humans and domestic animals. These flies and others in related families are often called synanthropic flies, species that exploit foods and habitats created by agriculture and other human activities. Muscid flies and their relatives can be grouped according to their habitat affinities. There are filth flies, such as the house fly, whose adults and immatures occur in a variety of filthy organic substrates, including latrines, household garbage, manure, and manure-soiled animal bedding. A subset of the filth flies are dung flies, such as the horn fly, whose immatures occur exclusively in cattle droppings. Another group is the sweat flies, whose adults feed persistently on perspiration.

MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY Copyright 2002, Elsevier Sciencc (USA). All rights reserved.

Muscid flies also can be grouped by the nature of their mouthparts. The nonbiting muscid flies have sponging mouthparts used to ingest liquids from inanimate substrates and animal tissues. These mouthparts are soft, fleshy, and incapable of penetrating skin. In contrast, biting muscid flies have piercing/sucking mouthparts that pierce the skin to obtain blood.

Useful reviews of the literature on muscid flies include a two-volume treatise on the biology and disease associations of synanthropic flies (Greenberg, 1971, 1973) and a monograph on the identification and biology of immature muscid flies (Skidmore, 1985). A comprehensive review of the veterinary effects and control of muscid flies and other arthropods on livestock is provided by Drummond et al. (1988). Additional reviews and bibliographies concentrate on selected species and their close relatives: the house fly (Thomas and Skoda, 1993; West, 1951; West and Peters, 1973), the stable fly (Morgan et al., 1983a; Petersen and Greene, 1989; Thomas and Skoda, 1993; Zumpt 1973), the horn fly (Bruce, 1964; Morgan and Thomas, 1974, 1977), and the face fly (Krafsur and Moon, 1997; Morgan et al., 1983b; Pickens and Miller, 1980).

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