Getting a Cat to Stop Spraying Inside

Cat Spray No More

Cat Spraying no more is a product that will guide the users on the way to prevent the various mess made by their cats. It is true that a cat that pees in the house can make their home smell like a litter box; it can be upsetting and stressful for the users and can become incredibly expensive if the users are forced to continually clean carpets and floors, or replace furniture. However, Cat Spraying No More is one that will help in the reduction of these problems because it will point the users towards the right things to do and what not to do as regards their cats. This product will stop their cat peeing and spraying outside the litter box for good. This professionally created and proven system will work whether their cat has just started peeing where they should not or if they've been doing it for years. This product is a cheap one that can be learnt by anyone. It comes with certain bonuses that will change the way the users see things as regards cat. They are Cat Training Bible, 101 Recipes for a Healthy Cat, The Cat Care Blueprint, Pet Medical Recorder Software. Read more here...

Cat Spray No More Summary


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Cat Spray Stop

Susan Westinghouse is the creator of the cat spray stop program. She is an avid veterinarian and cat expert with lots of years of experience. She claims that the guide offers a broad outline and precise approaches targeted at preventing your cat from spraying, despite your cat's stubborn or persistent personality. According to her, it contains the exclusive TTS Taste, Touch, Smell method for pinning the issue, therefore the guide works to stop the cat from spraying and discourages him to ever repeat the bad behavior in the future. It is an e-book that comes with two bonuses attached to it. The first bonus is a nutritional program that will help your cat lose unnecessary weight, while the second bonus is an essential oil recipe for cats that will help to reduce their stress level. This program is suitable for any owner who lives with a cat that has bad litter box habits and often sprays. Susane Westinghouse's guide is characterized by ease of use and it contains a ton of helpful tips that make the process a lot easier both for you and your furry companion. The program is spread across six chapters that take you through a comprehensive tour in how you can solve this annoying problem now, while also learning how to keep it from coming back to haunt you later on in the future. Read more here...

Cat Spray Stop Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Susan Westinghouse
Price: $37.00

Lice Of Cats And Dogs

Domestic cats are parasitized by one species of chewing louse, whereas dogs are parasitized by two species of chewing lice and one species of sucking louse. All four species seem to be distributed worldwide, but none is a common associate of healthy cats or dogs in North America. The cat biting louse (Felicola subrostrata) (Fig. 4.5E) parasitizes both domestic and wild cats. It may occur almost anywhere on the body.

Of Medicalveterinary Interest 8 References And Further Reading

The study of insects and insect-related problems that affect domestic animals, particularly livestock and companion animals (dogs, cats, horses, caged birds, etc.). In addition, veterinary entomology includes insect-associated problems affecting captive animals in zoological parks and wildlife in general. Medical-veterinary entomology combines these two disciplines.

Phoretic Mites Separated by Carrier and Time

Although associations between muscoid flies (Muscidae, Diptera) and phoretic mites have been widely studied and data of life history traits of several species are well known (e.g., Ciccolani 1979 Ciccolani et al. 1977 Rodrigueiro and do Prado 2004 Singh et al. 1967), the phoronts of blow flies have been poorly characterised. In a preliminary survey in Argentina, phoretic mites were examined in relation with the stages of decomposition and arrival of insects to a pig carcass (Centeno and Perotti 1999). Parasitus fimetorum phoretic deutonymphs were found at the very fresh stage of decomposition together with the first blow flies. Macrocheles mamifer females arrived 2 days after P. fimetorum. M. mamifer is a very widespread macrochelid in the Argentinean pampas that has not (yet) established a specific association with carrion beetles although uses them for transportation (Perotti 1998). M. mamifer is likely to be found traveling on filth, carrion flies and mammals (Krantz and Whitaker...

The Disease In The Flea

The disease in fleas also has a distinctive pattern. Small mammals, such as urban and sylvatic (or wood) rats, as well as squirrels, prairie dogs, rabbits, voles, coyotes, and domestic cats, are the principal hosts for Y. pestis. More than 80 different species of fleas are involved as plague vectors. Fleas are bloodsucking insects, and when a flea bites a plague-infected host (at the bacteremic septicemic stage) it ingests the rod-shaped bacteria these multiply in the blood clot in the proventriculus (foregut) of the flea. This bacteria-laden clot obstructs the flea's bloodsucking apparatus and, as a consequence, the flea is unable to pump blood into the midgut, where normally it would be digested. The flea becomes hungrier and in this ravenous state bites the host repeatedly with each bite, it regurgitates plague bacteria into the wound. In this way, infection is initiated. Y. pestis can also be pathogenic for the flea, and fleas with their foregut blocked rapidly starve to death. If...

Other Flea Borne Pathogens

In addition to flea-borne rickettsial organisms, the following bacterial agents cause diseases that affect humans Francisella tularensis causing tularemia, Salmonella en-teriditis causing salmonellosis, and Staphylococcus aureus causing staphylococcal infection. All of these agents also can be transmitted by other means, such as other ectoparasites and contact or aerosol exposure to infective fomites and mammalian tissues. All three infections are widespread, and the degree of involvement of fleas in transmission varies regionally. Another bacterial agent that may be transmitted by fleas is Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease. Infections by this zoonotic agent typically cause swollen regional lymph nodes. Long-term bacteremia can occur in inapparently infected cats which appear to be important reservoir hosts. More than 20,000 cases of human infection occur annually in the United States. Infection with B. henselae also can cause fever,...

History and conservation measures

Before 1800, the Hawaiian goose was common throughout the islands of Hawaii and Maui. Its population at that time has been estimated at 25,000. Although native inhabitants of the islands had hunted the bird for centuries, its population remained stable. That soon changed in the nineteenth century with the arrival of European settlers. They hunted the bird mercilessly and also introduced predators of the nene. These cats, dogs, rats, and mongooses preyed on the bird's eggs and on the young goslings. By 1900, the nene existed only at high altitudes in remote areas on Hawaii. It was extinct on Maui.

Veterinary Importance

The cat flea (C. felis) is an extremely important ectoparasite, not only of cats and dogs, but also several other mammals, including opossums, cattle, horses, sheep, goats, rabbits, and monkeys. Some populations of C. felis have adapted to certain hosts, such as dogs or cattle, and show a preference for feeding on these species. Occasionally cat fleas infest goats, lambs, calves, or other ungulates in large numbers and can cause anemia or even death. Individual pets, especially cats and dogs, may support hundreds or thousands of cat fleas. Because the larvae thrive on blood-rich fecal pellets voided by adult fleas on the host, it is important to vacuum or treat areas where pets rest or sleep to reduce flea numbers. The dog flea (C. canis) is a relatively infrequent ectoparasite of dogs, with established populations persisting in only a few regions such as Austria, Ireland, and New Zealand. Almost invariably, fleas associated with dogs are C. felis. Further details on the biology of...

Significance Of Fleas

Fleas are important to humans because of their potential as disease vectors, in addition to the annoyance they produce merely by biting. Pathogen transmission is facilitated by their habit of feeding sequentially on several hosts. The best known disease associated with fleas is bubonic plague the plague bacterium, Yersiniapestis, is transmitted almost exclusively by rodent fleas. Murine typhus is another disease for which cat fleas have been implicated in the transmission cycle. The flea-borne typhus causative agent, Rickettsia typhi, is transmitted from its rodent reservoir by several flea species, including C. felis. Fleas probably play a role in maintenance and transmission of several other disease organisms such as Bartonella henselae, causing cat scratch disease. The cat flea is the intermediate host for the dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum, which can affect small children as well as dogs and cats. Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) is a severe condition found primarily in dogs, but...

Conservation Status

The single most important threat to all orthoptrans is habitat destruction. This is especially true for species that are found only in small geographic areas. The introduction of ants, cats, and rats, especially on islands such as New Zealand, is a serious threat to many orthopteran species.

Succession on a corpse above ground

No specific insect has been associated with a particular species of corpse, according to Hough (1897), who worked on bodies of horses, snakes, cats, dogs, fish and humans which were left exposed on the surface of the ground. Despite this lack of specific relationship, because the pig is considered biologically similar to the human, it is the preferred model for forensic entomology research on succession in humans, where human cadavers are not used or for legal reasons cannot be used.

Description and biology

Thick-billed parrots live under constant threat from predators. When they feed, they often have one bird in the flock standing watch for predators, ready to signal to the other birds the moment an enemy is spotted. Their main enemies are raptors (birds of prey), such as red-tailed hawks, Apache goshawks, and peregrine falcons. When they are roosting in the trees they are also preyed upon by ring-tailed cats.

Public Health Importance

Table II lists pathogenic organisms that have been isolated from cockroaches in domestic or peridomestic environments. At least 32 species of bacteria in 16 genera are represented. These include such pathogens as Bacillus subtilis, a causative agent of conjunctivitis Escherichia coli and 9 strains of Salmonella, causative agents of diarrhea, gastroenteritis, and food poisoning Salmonella typhi, the causative agent of typhoid and 4 Proteus species, which commonly infect wounds. These isolations primarily have involved American, German, and Oriental cockroaches. Cockroaches also have been found harboring the eggs of 7 helminth species, at least 17 fungal species, 3 protozoan species, and 2 strains ofpoliomyelitic virus (Brenner etui,. 1987 Koehler et al, 1990, Brenner 1995). Researchers in Costa Rica have shown that Australian, American, and Madeira cockroaches become infected with the protozoan ToxoplasmagondiisSttr eating feces of infected cats. This suggests the possibility of...

Mite Induced Dermatitis

Chicken Mite

The tropical rat mite (Fig. 23.6) occurs throughout the world, where it parasitizes primarily rodents. It occasionally infests cats, wild carnivores, chickens and other birds, and humans. Most veterinary problems involving this mite occur in laboratory mice, rats, and hamsters. Heavily infested animals may become debilitated and anemic or experience reduced reproductivity death can occur in some cases. Infestations usually are recognized by the presence of blood-engorged deutonymphs and adults in the animal bedding, cages, and corners or crevices of cage racks. The tropical rate mite is a vector of Litomosoides carinii, a filarial nematode in cotton rats (see under Mite-Borne Diseases). Although not widely recognized as a problem, larvae of trombiculid mites (chiggers) commonly infest domestic animals. Only in cases of heavy infestation or sensitivity reactions are they likely to be brought to the attention of veterinarians. As in humans, the resultant dermatitis is a response to...

Other Flea Borne Pathogens and Parasites

Cats, for example, are typically susceptible to most strains of plague, whereas dogs usually are not. The double-pored tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum) normally develops as an adult parasite in the intestines of dogs, cats, and some wild carnivores. The most important intermediate flea hosts are the cat flea and dog flea, although the human flea can also serve in this capacity. In tropical Africa, a warthog flea (E. larina) is sometimes responsible for D. caninum infestations in domestic dogs. Infestations are usually initiated when animals consume parasitized fleas while grooming.

Prevention And Control

Several botanical derivatives, such as the pyrethrins, have low mammalian toxicity and are useful as flea powders for dusting flea-infested pets. Products such as flea soaps, which contain fatty acids, and flea shampoos can be used to bathe pets. Bathing removes or drowns many fleas, while those fleas that survive often desiccate because their integumental waxes have been removed by the detergents. Flea combs and flea collars for pets are also effective if used correctly. These collars should not be worn by humans (e.g., on the ankles), because they can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions. Some progress has been made in developing vaccines against fleas, mainly using midgut antigens of the cat flea to induce an immune response in the host. In several trials, dogs, cats, and rabbits that were experimentally challenged with cat-flea antigens had significantly more dead or reproductively compromised fleas than did nonvaccinated animals. Insect growth regulators (IGRs),...

Human Notoedric Mange

Humans occasionally become infested with Notoedres cati, a sarcoptid mite that causes notoedric mange in cats. Cases in humans are called human notoedric mange or human notoedric scabies. Following prolonged exposure to infested cats, people may become sensitized to this mite and develop intense pruritus within a few hours of subsequent contact with them. The reaction is induced without the mites actually burrowing. The most common sites of skin lesions are on the hands and legs, reflecting the areas most likely to come into contact with pets. The lesions subside when infested cats are either treated or removed from further contact (Chakrabarti, 1986).

Behavior And Ecology

Flea populations may be naturally regulated in several ways. Hosts are often efficient groomers and are able to significantly reduce flea populations on their bodies. Cats, for example, have been shown to remove up to 18 of their fleas within 24 hr. Natural predators, such as certain mesostigmatid mites, pseudoscorpions, beetles, ants, and other arthropods, feed on fleas, especially the immature stages in host nests, thereby decreasing their numbers. Various parasites also contribute to flea mortality. These include the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis, the protozoan Nosema pulicis, the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae, and parasitoids such as the pteromalid wasp Baraimlia fuscipes.

Fleas Of Medicalveterinary Importance

Human flea (Pulex irritans) This flea will feed on humans and is capable of transmitting pathogens of medical importance. However, it is more commonly an ectoparasite of swine and domestic cats and dogs in most parts of the world. Although P. irritans is currently an infrequent parasite of humans in developed countries, this has not always been the case. P. irritans has a patchy but cosmopolitan distribution and often occurs in remote and isolated areas. Adults of this species lack both genal and pronotal ctenidia (Fig. 7.2C). P. simulans is a closely related species that parasitizes large mammals, including wild canids and domestic dogs, and sometimes people, in the New World. Older records (before 1958) from this region are unreliable and could refer to either P. irritans or P. simulans. The cat flea occurs worldwide and is currently the most important flea pest of humans and many domestic animals. It is primarily a nuisance because it feeds not only on domestic and feral cats, but...

Human Lice as Intermediate Hosts of Tapeworms

However, large numbers of lice can be debilitating by causing anemia, dermatitis, allergic responses, hair or feather loss, and other disorders. Lice also induce intensive host grooming, which can lead to the formation of hair balls in the stomach, especially in cats and calves.

Coprophagy insect brethren of the crowned pigs of Borneo

Probably take to autocoprophagy to get vitamins. The smelly substance of excreta, the skatol (3-methylindol) is used, in small quantities, as a stabiliser of the flavour of vanilla in ice creams. Nature synthesizes skatol in Arum flowers (Zantedeschia aethiopica) to attract pollinating flies, and civet cats in Africa also have glands producing skatol. This chemical is widely used in perfume industry for giving long shelf life to odours. PJ remembers those civet cats in Ethiopia, which were expressing their hate when people were pressing their perfume glands to extract the precious molecules. The Abyssinian cheaters used to mix up sometimes child poo and that was why our perfumers in Paris used to pay the shipment only after analysis of the contents. After all, consistency and smell and even similar chemical formula, were present in the two, above mentioned, producers. Now an anonymous poem looks rather appropriate Human excreta are normally rich in salts, and the pigs in the Orient...

Diptera Ephemeroptera

The original habitats for some species offlies have disappeared, or they have been abandoned in favor of artificial sites. Muscids, and blue and green bottle flies utilize the predictable presence of decaying garbage, carrion, and feces from domestic dogs and cats in urban environments.

Rickettsia as pathogens or facultative endosymbionts

Endemic typhus is murine typhus caused by R. typhi and transmitted by feces or crushed rat and cat fleas where humans are a tangential host Rat mites and lice might be vectors as well (Reeves et al , 2006d Choi et al , 2007) Reservoirs are rats, opossums, skunks, and cats R. typhi replicates in fleas and fleas stay infectious for life but unlike the human body louse, they are unaffected by the bacteria R. typhi is transovarially transmitted in fleas R. canada (R. canadensis) has historically been grouped with the typhus rickettsiae It has been found in several tick species but has not been clearly associated with any disease in humans or other animals Phylogenetically, R. canada is not related to the typhus group rickettsiae it forms a sister group to R. bellii

Urban ecosystems

Other sites in or around urban areas may have accumulations of animal dung and associated flies feeding on this resource. Zoos, kennels for dogs and cats, stables for riding horses, and large recreation theme parks have large animals, and manure disposal at these sites can be difficult since it may not be easily spread on adjacent farmland. Fly populations at these sites may be seasonal in temperate regions, but small numbers of adults will be present during winter months. Other insects are associated with the manure and the fly populations, including yellowjackets, carabids, and dung beetles. Many mountainous or wilderness areas used for recreationin the western USA contain large populations of plague-positive rodents. A large number of plague cases in the USA have been contracted during recreational pursuits, or in suburban areas adjacent to wilderness land. Increased urban growth has resulted in large numbers of people living in or near areas with rodent populations that harbor...

Introduced species

In some cases, these introduced species may not cause any harm. They may, over time, adapt to their new surroundings and fellow species, becoming native. Most often, however, introduced species seriously disrupt ecological balances. They compete with native species for food and shelter. Often, they prey on the native species, who lack natural defenses against the intruders. In the last 500 years, introduced insects, cats, pigs, rats, and others have caused the endangerment or outright extinction of hundreds of native species.

Pets Room

Members of the family Demodicidae (Prostigmata) are found in the hair follicles of most dogs, some cats, gerbils, hamsters and humans, and cause no problems in the large majority of mammals. The mites that live on our pets may often be found in our homes and could be described as house mites.


Niswander,a 30-year-old software engineer and president of a Tucson software company called BitBoost, ultimately created PawSense, a program that allegedly discriminates between people and cats.Should it decide that a series of strokes was most likely the footwork of a cat,PawSense cuts off further keyboard input until it is absolutely convinced that a person is back in charge. Whatever anthropic endeavor may have been left half-done and unsaved because of an impulsive fridge trip, mail run or bathroom break is thus kept safe from cat curiosity. How PawSense tells a cat from a person is, like good comedy, mostly a matter of timing. The difference between human typing and cat typing is not that cats type gibberish, Niswander notes, because humans also type stuff that looks like gibberish, such as some odd computer language. The way that you Of course, PawSense is but a stopgap. The day is dawning when voice-recognition technology will remove the keyboard from the computer-human...

Mammal chewing lice

(jcnerally pale brown in color, these lice have large, square heads with conspicuous, short antennae and distinctive mandibles. The legs are short, each with a single tarsal claw. Females have blunt-ended abdomens, while those of males arc slightly pointed. The name comes from the fact that these lice live on mammals such as horses, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, and cats, as well as nondomesticatcd species.

Flea Bite Dermatitis

Allergic skin reactions to flea bites are a common problem of domestic animals, especially household pets. Hypersensitivity to saliva from feeding fleas is usually more apparent in pets than in humans because larger numbers of pets are bitten by fleas. A single flea bite can trigger an acute, sometimes chronic, dermatitis in hypersensitive dogs or cats. Incessant scratching and sldn irritation, especially during the warmer months, often reflects this condition. In cats, flea-bite dermatitis usually manifests as purplish papules that are often covered with crusts in dogs, crusts are typically absent. In both cats and dogs, lesions are usually concentrated on the rump and inner thighs, with accompanying fur loss from frequent scratching. Cats sometimes also have a ring of crusts around the neck or a general pruritus. Diligent flea control is important

Common fleas

1 his family looks typical of its order and may have bristle-combs on its pronotum and checks. Common fleas are ectoparasitic on humans and a wide range of other mammals, including dogs, cats, and rabbits. REMARK Many species spread disease. The Dog Flea carries a tapeworm that affects dogs, cats, and humans. The bacterium that caused bubonic plague in medieval Europe was carried by various types of rat flea.


That phoresy is indeed the most important mechanism or in this case the only mechanism, by which forensically important mite species arrive at a carcass has been shown by Goff in an experiment in which he studied the mites on carcasses of adult cats and in the seapage zone beneath the carcasses (Goff 1989). He found 22 different species belonging to 15 different families. Mites of four of these families, Macrochelidae, Parasitidae, Uropodidae and Pachylaelapidae (all Mesostigmata) might be potenial indicators of post mortem interval. Mites of all these four gamasid families use phoresy to arrive at the carcass.


D. immitis is a filarial nematode in the superfamily Filarioidea (order Spirurida, class Secernentea). The males are 12 to 20 cm in length and 0.7 to 0.9 mm in diameter, with a spirally coiled posterior end. The females are 25 to 31 cm in length and 1.0 to 1.3 mm in diameter. D. immitis was first found in the United States, but it occurs globally, with a tendency for increased prevalence in humid warm regions conducive to abundant mosquito populations. In the United States, the prevalence can be as great as 45 in dogs within 150 miles of the Gulf of Mexico coast, Atlantic coast north to New Jersey, and Mississippi River and its tributaries. The prevalence elsewhere in the United States is generally less than 5 . Although dogs are the primary host, D. immitis has been found in coyotes, wolves, dingoes, foxes, sea lions, harbor seals, wolverines, ferrets, and cats. The number of nematodes per dog is variable, ranging from single nematodes to as many as 250. Cats are less tolerant, with...


This family contains species that are parasites of mammals instead of birds. Although some infest domestic animals, such as dogs, cats, and horses, they are of little medical importance. Cat louse, Felicola subrostratus Adults are 2-4 mm long, broad to slender, but the head is narrowly rounded. Antennae are exposed and usually three-segmented there is one tarsal claw on each leg. The cat louse is found on kittens and adult cats.


Habitats occupied in the urban environment include rock walls, discarded wood and firewood piles, and along house foundations. Adults often bite people without provocation, and for this behavior it is called the aggressive house spider. Males and females build webs, and both may be found on a single web in late summer and fall. Mature males leave their web in fall to search for females. Females enter houses during fall and winter after exposure to winter cold. Juveniles enter buildings in spring when they are searching for web sites. Males enter buildings in fall, but are usually restricted to basements and ground-floor rooms. They are poor climbers and are rarely found upstairs or on walls. Males are more venomous than females, and they are responsible for most human bites. T. agrestis venom is a necrotic type that causes tissue death and sloughing in the immediate area of the bite. The lesions that result from the bite take up to 6 months to heal. Pet dogs and cats are bitten on the...


The domestic and peridomestic habitats frequented by some Triatomines are an important link to their role as disease vectors for trypanosomiasis. A range of animal reservoirs provides T. cruzi access to both the natural and domestic environment. The sylvatic form of T. cruzi circulates in natural areas among species of small animals and wild species of tri-atomine bugs. The disease does not harm wild animals and the triatomine carriers do not occur in domestic or peridomestic habitats. The domestic form of T. cruzi involves humans, animals, and triatomines common in domestic habitats. The Chagas disease protozoan is capable of developing in most triatomine bugs, but only i0-i2 species are synanthropic and serve as vectors for humans or domestic animals. Dogs, cats, squirrels (Sciurus), house mice, wood rat (Neotoma fiscipes macrotis), and the black rat (Rattus rattus) are important domiciliary reservoirs. T. cruzi does not infect birds. The important reservoir in urban, suburban, and...

Medical injury

Rodents in natural areas, but are attracted to lights and may enter houses in suburbs and shantytowns. Because ofhouses built in the chaparal on the edges of cities, there has been an increase in the occurrence of conenose bugs and Chagas disease, which is caused by a Trypanosoma transmitted by these bugs. Trypanosoma cruzi is maintained in the urban environment in the domestic and peridomestic populations of cats, dogs, opossums, armadillos, squirrels, and several species of rats and mice. The primary vectors are Triatoma spp., Rhodnius prolixus, and Panstrongylus megistus. The focus of this disease is the poor household conditions in rural areas and septic fringe ofcities.

Flea Suppression

Because fleas must have blood from a mammalian host to survive, treating host animals is the most efficient and effective means of suppressing fleas. There are several on-animal products that are effective for flea control. Many contain pyrethrins, which are safe, effective products but kill only fleas on the animal at the time of treatment and do not provide residual control. Other over-the-counter compounds include spot-on permethrin products, which are limited to canine use because they can be lethal to cats. To forestall flea infestations, pets can be started on flea developmental inhibitors early in the season. Products containing insect development inhibitors can be applied topically, given orally (once monthly as a pill for dogs or a liquid added to a cat's food), or given as a 6-month injectable formulation for cats. Female fleas that feed on blood of treated animals subsequently are unable to reproduce.

Urban habitats

Open refuse sites may be the primary method for collecting the garbage from small communities or neighborhoods in some parts of the world. These sites are usually exposed, three-walled bins, large metal containers, or simply a vacant plot of land. Depending on the size of the areas served, there may be one or more of them in a neighborhood. Although this method leaves organic refuse vulnerable to pest infestation, concentrating household refuse in designated sites enables efficient removal and is better than uncollected garbage in the street. Depending on climate and seasonal temperatures, frequency of collection, and the organic content, open public refuse sites supportlarge infestations offlies and rodents, and often attract birds, dogs, cats, goats, and other animals. Rodents and flies may establish long-term populations at these sites, and move from there to forage in or infest surrounding buildings. Fly maggots within the garbage at the time of collection may be removed from the...


The Psychodinae have no known veterinary importance. The Phlebotominae are undoubtedly pests of livestock, pets, and wildlife in places where they are abundant, although their contribution to the overall economic loss caused by biting arthropods has not been determined. In addition, they are known to transmit leishmanial agents that infect dogs and cats and may play a role in the transmission of vesicular stomatitis virus among livestock. The veterinary forms of leishmaniasis are canine leishmaniasis and feline leishmaniasis. Both domestic dogs and cats are susceptible to cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesions usually occur on the nose and ears. Dogs are also susceptible to visceral leishmaniasis and may be important reservoirs, but cats are rarely infected and do not show signs of disease. The incubation period may be months or years. Infection in dogs is prevalent in Brazil, China, and the Mediterranean region.

Ixodida Metastigmata

Rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporipalustris Females are 11.3 mm long and 7.5 mm wide when engorged. The body is narrow anteriorly and broad posteriorly, and coarsely punctate. Hosts are rabbits, birds, and occasionally domestic mammals such as dogs and cats. It rarely feeds on humans but it is sometimes found in houses, and is important in the spread of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. This tick occurs in Central and South America, continental USA, and Canada.

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