Get Rid Of House Centipedes

House Centipedes Control

Discover the exact Step-by-Step solution to get rid of House Centipedes once and for all. Understand why you have centipedes in the house in the first place! This is key to understanding how to get rid of them! Get some basic knowledge of house centipede habits so that you understand how they live and why they can be so hard to get rid of. Learn what kinds of conditions house centipedes need to survive and how to make very simple changes to your home so that house centipedes can no longer find it suitable. Get the horrifying truth about why house centipedes keep coming back again and again Yes, they are laying eggs in places you'd probably be happier not knowing about. Understand the steps you must take to get rid of house centipedes. Discover the ultimate secrets to keeping house centipedes gone for good! Read more...

House Centipedes Control Overview

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Class Chilopoda Centipedes

Centipedes are dorsoventrally flattened with 15 to 173 segments, each with one pair of legs (Fig. 4A). Poisonous forcipules (fangs) enable centipedes to kill and consume insects, other centipedes, annelids, mollusks, and sometimes small vertebrates under most circumstances, the poison is not lethal to people. The body is partially hung beneath the legs to increase stability and to allow hind legs to step over front ones, which allows the insects to run swiftly in search of prey or to escape predators. Centipedes are found in most terrestrial environments including the desert fringe the latter is surprising given their chitinous, noncalcified exoskeleton, which is relatively permeable to water.

House Centipede Scutigera coleoptrata

Physical characteristics Adult house centipedes measure up to 1.2 inches (35 millimeters) in length. They are yellow or brown with three purplish or bluish bands along the length of the body. They have large compound eyes on each side of the head. The antennae are very long and threadlike with five hundred to six hundred segments. Adults have fifteen pairs of long slender legs that keep the body well above the ground when they are on the move. The last pair of legs are the longest with those of females twice as long as the body. House centipedes eat insects that are considered to be household pests, such as flies and cockroaches. (Illustration by Barbara Duperron. Reproduced by permission.) Habitat House centipedes are found in a variety of habitats under wood, in trash, or inside caves. They are often found in homes, especially in places where there is moisture, such as tubs, basins, and basements. Diet They eat silverfish, flies, cockroaches, moths, spiders, and other house...

Chilopoda

Centipedes are soft-bodied and dorsoventrally flattened arthropods characterized by having 15-181 pairs of legs, one leg per segment (always an odd number). Species in temperate regions are 1-10 cm long and yellowish brown to brown. Tropical species are 25 cm long and often bright red, orange, green, or violet. The head has a pair of antennae and three pairs of mouthparts. Behind the head is the first body segment (basilar segment), which contains the poison-claws that are used to capture prey. Some species have compound eyes, some have clusters of ocelli, and some lack eyes. These arthropods are nocturnal and are limited to moisthabitats, since their cuticle lacks an impervious wax-layer (characteristic of insects). Spiracular openings to tubular tracheae are located above the insertion of the legs on the sides of the body. In most centipedes the spiracles are placed on alternate segments of the body. Legs have six segments coxa, trochanter, prefemur, femur, tibia, and tarsus. In the...

Centipedes

Spanish Ciempi s, Centipedes (Kaestner 1968 356 388, Lewis 1981) are slender, very elongate, and many segmented arthropods, resembling millipedes only in a very general way. They are distinguished by bodies with only one pair of legs per segment. The latter are clearly distinct, not fused into pairs. The number of segments varies from 15 to 181 no species has an even number of pairs of legs and never, therefore, has one hundred legs, as the group's common name suggests. Centipedes possess a single pair of long, These ubiquitous arthropods exhibit a large size range. The majority are relatively small (BL 1-5 cm). Some very large chilopods belong to the Scolopendromor-pha (Bucherl 1974). Scolopendra gigantea (fig. 4.9c) of the West Indies is gigantic, attaining a body length of 27 centimeters (Bucherl 1971). Because of their great size, such centipedes are greatly feared. They sometimes bite humans, causing pain and often a local inflammation but usually nothing more serious,...

Arthropod Evolution

For these reasons, they were traditionally placed in a single large taxon, the Myriapoda. The monophyletic nature of the myriapods has been supported by some, but not all, cladistic analyses of large data sets with a combination of morphological and molecular characters of living species (Wheeler et al., 1993 authors in Fortey and Thomas, 1998). Yet other morphological and molecular studies indicate that the myriapods constitute a paraphyletic or even polyphyletic group. Determination of the relationships within the Myriapoda has proved difficult because potentially homologous characters are shared by different pairs of groups. For example, Diplopoda and Pauropoda have the same number of head segments and one pair of maxillae Diplopoda and Chilopoda have segmental tracheae and Symphyla FIGURE 1.7. Myriapoda. (A) Lithobius sp. (centipede), (B) Julus terrestris (millipede), (C) Pauropus silvaticus (pauropod), and (D) Scutigerella immaculata (symphylan). From R. D. Barnes, 1968,...

What Are Insects And Spiders

Many different kinds of scientists study the lives of insects, spiders, and their relatives. Entomologists (EHN-tih-MA-luh-jists) examine the lives of insects, while arachnologists (uh-rak-NA-luh-jists) look at spiders and their relatives. Myriapodologists (mi-RI-ah-po-DAL-luh-jists) focus their attentions on millipedes, centipedes, and their kin. Invertebrate zoologists (in-VER-teh-breht zu-AH-luh-jists)and some marine biologists study marine crustaceans, sea spiders, and horseshoe crabs. It is the work of all these scientists that has provided the information found on these pages.

Insects And Spiders As Pests

Arthropods not only eat people's belongings, they also attack human bodies. The bites of blood-feeding mosquitoes, flies, fleas, lice, and ticks are not only irritating, they are also responsible for spreading diseases that can infect and kill people, pets, and farm animals. Over the centuries more people have died from diseases carried by arthropods than any other reason. Even today, more people die from malaria and yellow fever, diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, than from HIV AIDS, cancer, accidents, and wars. Spiders, millipedes, centipedes, and other arthropods are not often pests but are considered nuisances when they enter homes. The venomous bites of some spiders and centipedes may be painful but are seldom life-threatening for healthy adults.

Arthropods Phylum Arthropoda Insects and Their Relatives

Immature stages Most arthropods other than insects undergo little or no metamorphosis and the young resemble the adults. A few (some crustaceans) have a larval stage markedly different from the adult some (millipedes, some centipedes, some arachnids) have fewer legs in immature stages than in adult stages. Habits Very diversified. Practically every animal habitat contains some arthropods, and different arthropods vary greatly in their feeding habits.

Description and biology

The red-kneed tarantula lives in a burrow it has dug out underground and lined with its spun silk. Its diet consists of centipedes and millipedes, beetles, crickets, grasshoppers, small frogs, lizards, and sometimes mice. It hunts at night, locating its prey by means of a special sensitivity to its sounds and

Blood and Circulation

From the heart (McCann 1970), and empties into sinuses surrounding the brain. In centipedes, there are short lateral arteries leading to the gut and other minor vessels. There is a pulmonary artery to the book lungs in spiders as well as secondary vessels to the legs, tail, and so on, in other arachnids. The heart, which lies dorsally in the hemocoel, just beneath the abdominal roof, propels the blood forward with peristaltic contractions. After passing through the body cavity, including the legs, antennae, wings, and other appendages, and often aided by auxiliary, pulsatile organs at their bases, the blood reenters the heart through lateral pores (ostia).

Overview Of The Phylum Arthropoda

The Arthropoda is a phylum more diverse than any other living or extinct animal taxon. Counted among this immense assemblage are beetles, butterflies, silverfish, centipedes, scorpions, mites, sea spiders, crabs, sow bugs, and barnacles, and many other common names too numerous to mention. Arthropods are the numerically dominant metazoan on land and rank among the most prominent benthic (bottom-dwelling) The name Arthropoda is from the Greek, meaning jointed foot. The presence of jointed appendages is the primary feature distinguishing arthropods from other phyla. Advantages provided by these appendages, a metameric or segmented body, and a hard skeleton are the three most important reasons for the phylum's success. Arthropods are segmented like annelid worms, but the evolutionary trend has been to fuse several metameres into body regions (tagmata) with specialized functions. Spiders have two tagmata, insects have three, and many crustaceans have two however myriapods (millipedes and...

Taxonomic Diversity And Intraphyletic Affiliations

Artificial, polyphyletic grouping of similar taxa evolving multiple times from different prearthropod ancestors. Much of this debate has centered on evolutionary relationships between the phyla Arthropoda and Onychophora. Classified within Arthropoda are one extinct subphylum (sometimes called super class), the Trilobitomorpha (trilobites), and four living subphyla Chelicerata (spiders, mites, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders), Myriapoda (millipedes and centipedes), Hexapoda (springtails, bristletails, beetles, flies, true bugs, etc.), and Crustacea (crayfish, barnacles, water fleas, pill bugs, etc.). Sometimes the number of extant subphyla is reduced to three (Chelicerata, Uniramia, and Crustacea) or even two groups (Chelicerata and Mandibulata). Molecular studies of arthropod phylogeny present a reasonably clear picture of relationships among three of the four living subphyla. Chelicerates are evolutionarily distinct from insects and crustaceans, and they differ from all other...

Other External Secretions

Other secretions are external but cause no interactive response in other or the same species. These are utilitarian substances involved in the life processes of the producer. Examples are silk (Denny 1980) for cocoons and webs, adhesives to bind eggs in place, and materials such as wax or gums for building structures. Venom used by spiders, centipedes, scorpions, and others to obtain food also belong in this category. Regardless of function, arthropod venoms are usually compared from chemical or pharmacological standpoints (Bettini 1978).

From Precambrian Chains to Three Segments

Imagine a centipede-like body progressively changing perhaps stepwise into a bee's body. A related question might be that if change arises from mutant genes, how were these early bodies able to tolerate large-scale mutations in the genes determining their form without the bodies developing suddenly some grotesque abnormality and becoming dysfunctional enough to end the evolutionary sequence

Discovery And Characterization Of Cave Arthropods

Troglobites in Europe, North America and Japan and Callipodida, with troglobites in Europe and the Near East. Four other orders (Polyxenida, Glomerida, Spirobolida, and Spirostrepida) each have a few cave-adapted species. Cave millipedes from the tropics are still poorly known, and many new species undoubtedly await discovery. Many ground-inhabiting centipedes regularly enter caves. Whether they can live and reproduce underground is unknown for most species, but a few are troglophilic or troglobitic. The rock centipedes (Lithobiomorpha) are widespread and include several troglobitic species. A few troglobitic giant centipedes (Scolopendromorpha) are known from the tropics. An undescribed 8-cm-long Scutigerimorpha from North Queensland, Australia, is one of the largest terrestrial troglobites known.

Nonsalivary Entangling Secretions

The posterior abdominal tergites and cerci of cockroaches in a variety of genera are covered with a viscous secretion that can act as an entangling glue for small predators. Species in genera as diverse as Blatta and Pseudoderopeltis produce proteinaceous secretions on the abdominal tergites that would be readily encountered by predators pursuing these cockroaches. After seizing the cockroaches, predatory centipedes, beetles, and ants rapidly release their prey while cleaning their mouthparts. The fleeing cockroaches generally have more than ample time to effect their escape.

Relationships Of Insects To The Remains

This category includes those taxa that use the corpse as an extension of their own natural habitat, as in the case of the Collembola, spiders, and centipedes. Acari in the families Acaridae, Lardoglyphidae, and Winterschmidtiidae that feed on molds and fungi growing on the corpse may be included in this category. Of less certain association are the various Gamasida and Actinedida, including the Macrochelidae, Parasitidae, Parholaspidae, Cheyletidae, and Raphignathidae, that feed on other acarine groups and nematodes.

Bosnia And Herzegovina

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Devil's coach-horse European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Behavior And Ecology

Scorpions feed on a variety of prey, notably soft-bodied insects and arachnids. Heavily sclerotized insects and other invertebrates such as certain isopods are often rejected. Common prey items include spiders, solpugids, other scorpions, millipedes, centipedes, gastropods, and other invertebrates. The larger scorpions will also attack and feed on small vertebrates such as lizards, snakes, and rodents. Owing to poor vision, scorpions depend primarily on their sensory hairs and their ability to sense ground vibrations as a means of detecting, locating, and recognizing suitable prey. Using mechanoreceptors on their tarsi, they can detect potential prey up to 15 cm away. Some arboreal scorpions even can capture flying insects that approach close enough for them to detect via air movements with the trichobothria on their pedipalps. More than 150 species of predators have been reported to feed on scorpions. Among the most common are birds and lizards, followed by various mammals, frogs,...

Diversity Of Insectivory

Mammals include many insectivorous groups, some gen-eralists and others obligate specialists. Most of those that specialize in eating insects eat either ants or termites. Generalized insectivores will eat insects along with other arthropods such as centipedes, millipedes, spiders, and scorpions. Marsupials,

Box 72 Relationships of the Hexapoda to other Arthropoda

The immense phylum Arthropoda, the joint-legged animals, includes several major lineages the myriapods (centipedes, millipedes, and their relatives), the chelicerates (horseshoe crabs and arachnids), the crustaceans (crabs, shrimps, and relatives), and the hexapods (the six-legged arthropods the Insecta and their relatives). The onychophorans (velvet worms, lobopods) traditionally have been included in the Arthropoda, but now are considered either to lie outside as a probable sister group, or may be related to chelicerates. Traditionally, each major arthropod lineage has been considered mono-phyletic, but some investigations have revealed non-monophyly of one or more groups. Estimation of inter-relationships has been contentious. The once-influential view of the late Sidnie Manton proposed three groups of arthropods, namely the Uniramia (lobopods, myriapods, and insects, united by having single-branched legs), Crustacea, and Chelicerata, each derived independently from a different...

The Grasshoppers Cousins

Forest Insects List Ppt

Nature's tendency s to produce groups rather than individuals Any animal you can think of resembles in some way another animal or a number of other animals. An insect resembles on the one hand a shrimp or a crab, and on the other a centipede or a spider. Resemblances among animals are either superficial or fundamental. For example, a whale or a porpoise resembles a fish and lives the life of a fish, but has the skeleton and other organs of land-inhabiting mammals. Therefore, notwithstanding their form and aquatic habits, whales and porpoises are classed as mammals and not as fishes. The msects, the centipedes, the spiders, and the shrimps, crayfish, lobsters, crabs, and other such creatures belong to the phylum Arthofoda- The name of this phylum means l t 14. Examples of fcur common classes of the Arthropoda (a crab (Crustacea) B, a spider (Arachmda). C, a centipede (Chilopoda) d, a fly (Insecta or Hexapoda) l t 14. Examples of fcur common classes of the Arthropoda (a crab (Crustacea)...

Cyanogenic Glucosides

Among animals, this type of defence is practised by millipedes, centipedes and insects only. The larvae of the Australian beetles of Paropsis and Chrysophtarta, feeding on Eucalyptus leaves produce mandelonitrile and prunasin. When freeze-dried insects were treated with P-glucosidase and nitrilase, HCN was released (Figure 10.7). The larvae

Chemical defence in beetles and moths

In New Guinea, the Polyconoceras millipedes squirt their very toxic quinones covering more than one meter. The quinones burn skin, and eyes, and can be very toxic. One of us (PJ), around Lae, in the east of New Guinea, got the secretions over his body. He came back with a beekeeper equipment and all the plastic was badly burnt. The skin after receiving the spray was disintegrating rapidly. Blind dogs are found in the area, and it is said that criminals among the natives used the extract to poison their enemies. The papuans are terribly afraid of them. Similar cases of quinone projections are known in tropical America among several millipedes, but they are rare. Generally they ooze quinones, on their diplosegments, as in Africa, but do not project it. Centipedes bite, but all millipedes produce secretions, cyanide, proteins, as varied as the group to which they belong. This account of millipede toxins is a little deviation from the topic of this chapter, but it may be accepted, as it...

Summary Of The Insect Fossil Record

Myriapods (centipedes and or millipedes) (all comprising the Tracheata, or Atelocerata) or the Crustacea. Crustacea may actually have the oldest fossil record of all animals (formerly held by the trilobites) because some Precambrian fossils have recently been reinterpreted as crustaceans. If hexapods are closely related to crustaceans, it is most likely to be a group within Crustacea, and the earliest evidence of this stem group will probably be found in the Silurian. Approximately 10 million years younger is an undescribed archaeognathan ( Microcoryphia) from the Gasp Peninsula in eastern Canada. Apterygotes, each with a single, long caudal filament (Monura Archaeognatha), occur in the Carboniferous and Devonian (Fig. 4b). Unidentified insect remains from 378 mya are known from Gilboa, New York, along with centipedes (Chilopoda) (Fig. 2a), true spiders (Araneae), trigonotarbids, oribatid mites, and pseudoscorpions. The Gasp and Gilboa remains are original cuticle.

Peridomestic and domestic habitats

Harborage substrates, food resources, and environmental conditions of urban landscapes around the world generally support a large number of different species, if not individual species in large numbers. The soil-inhabiting and -nesting arthropods in this environment include ants thatforage indoors and termites that damage structural wood, ground-nest bees and wasps, and occasional or nuisance pests such as clover mites, millipedes, centipedes, and springtails. Plant-feeding insects utilize the cultivated urban and suburban trees and shrubs, and manyare aesthetic pests. Blood-feedingmites (chiggers), ticks, mosquitoes and other biting flies are associated with domestic and feral vertebrates. Species utilizing building surfaces or perimeter substrates include the umbrella wasps, hornets, yel-lowjackets, spiders, and scorpions. Underground sewer and storm drainage pipes provide some cockroach and rodent species access to urban and suburban neighborhoods. The garbage disposal network of...

Arthropods And Insects

The arthropods were the first organisms to emerge from the sea, and insects were the first invertebrates to fly. The arthropods consist of Crustacea (crabs, lobsters, shrimp, barnacles and woodlice), Chelicerata (spiders, ticks, mites, scorpions and others), Hexapoda or Insecta, and Myriapoda (millipedes, centipedes and other minor groups). These classes separated a long time ago, so they have developed quite differently, but it is interesting to discover parallel developments.

Minor Arthropod Problems Of Medicalveterinary Interest

In addition to arthropod groups detailed in the chapters that follow, a few arthropods in other groups may have minor, incidental, or occasional significance to human and animal health. These include springtails (order Collembola), bark lice (order Pscoptera), walking sticks (order Phasmida), mayflies (order Ephemeroptera), earwigs (order Dermaptera), thrips (order Thysanoptera), caddisflies (order Trichoptera), centipedes (class Chilopoda), and millipedes (class Diplopoda). In addition to various hymenopterans, arachnids, and other venomous arthropods detailed in the following chapters, a few miscellaneous arthropods produce venoms that can cause medical-veterinary problems. These include walking sticks (stick insects) and millipedes, some of which utilize venomous defensive secretions or sprays. Defensive sprays of certain walking sticks can cause conjunctivitis (Stewart 1937), whereas defensive sprays of some millipedes contain hydrochloric acid that can chemically burn the skin...

Dressed For Success

The exoskeleton works both as skin and skeleton. It protects the animal from harm as it swims, crawls, burrows, or flies through the habitat, and it provides a means of support for the muscles and internal organs inside. The exoskeleton is made up of several layers that are composed mostly of chitin (KYE-tehn), a complex material that is made of fibers and combines with a protein to make the exoskeleton light, tough, and flexible, just like fiberglass. The surface of the exoskeleton is covered with small pits, spines, and hairlike structures called setae (SIH-tee). Some setae are sensitive to touch and sometimes help to protect the body from injury. In most insects and spiders, a waxy layer covering the exoskeleton helps to maintain the moisture levels inside the body. Millipedes, centipedes, and crustaceans do not have this protection.

Getting Organized

Centipedes, millipedes, and their relatives have bodies that are divided into two major regions. The head is followed by a long trunk-like body. The head has four pairs of appendages, including the mouthparts and one pair of antennae. Adults have one or two pairs of legs on most body segments. Depending on the species the adults have eleven to 382 pairs of legs. Their reproductive organs are located at the end of the body or just behind the head. There are about 818,000 species of insects, millipedes, centipedes, and their relatives that live on land or in freshwater habitats.

Transformations

There are four basic types of metamorphosis. Some millipedes and centipedes, as well relatives of insects known as pro-turans, develop by anamorphosis (ANN-eh-MORE-feh-sihs). Their larvae hatch from eggs with fewer body segments than they will have as adults. Additional segments and legs are added as they molt. When wingless diplurans, springtails, silverfish, and bristletails molt, the only noticeable change is that they are larger. They molt many times as larvae and will continue to molt after they reach adulthood. Grasshoppers, true bugs, drag-onflies, and some other winged insects develop by gradual metamorphosis. The larvae strongly resemble the adults when they hatch, but they lack developed wings and reproductive organs. These insects stop molting once they reach the adult stage. Beetles, butterflies, moths, flies, fleas, ants, bees, wasps, and others develop by complete metamorphosis. They have four very distinct stages egg, larva, pupa, and adult. They do not continue to grow...

Behavior

Centipedes are strictly carnivores and actively hunt for small animals, usually insects. Occasionally larger centipedes will catch and kill a small mammal, such as a young mouse. (Arthur V. Evans. Reproduced by permission.) Others startle would-be predators by suddenly flashing bright colors or eye spots. Man-tids strike out with their spiny front legs to display their bright colors. The hind wings of some grasshoppers and stick insects are also brightly patterned, but they usually remain hidden under the forewings. Moths suddenly spread their plainly patterned forewings to reveal hind wings marked with large eyes or bright contrasting bands of color. Centipedes and caterpillars have false heads that either direct attacks away from sensitive parts of their bodies or simply confuse predators hoping to make a sneak attack. Other groups of arthropods do not mate directly. For example, male spiders must first transfer their sperm to special containers on their pedipalps before they are...

Segmentation

Arthropods, much like modern-day centipedes. Evolution eventually favored the fusion of adjoining segments (a process called tagmosis) for various functional purposes (e.g., flight in higher insects), and body regions were formed. Of these, insects display a triple set, including the head (composed of the acron plus four or five highly fused original segments), a thorax (of three segments, pro-, meso-, and metathorax) and abdomen (with eleven segments, the posteriormost being highly modified into genitalia). head include the antennae in insects, centipedes, and millipedes, all with one pair. Arachnids lack antennae, their place usually being assumed by the pedipalps that have become antennalike. However, in some arachnids, the pedipalps take other forms and functions, as the claws of scorpions or walking legs in sun spiders. Around the mouth, modified segmented appendages serve as jaws or stylets for chewing or imbibing liquids and bear food-tasting and smelling organs called palpi....

Subphylum Myriapoda

Myriapoda (many feet) is a subphylum of elongate arthropods with bodies divided into a head and trunk with numerous segments, most of which have uniramous appendages no pronounced tagmatization is evident. Myriapods range in length from 0.5 to 300 mm and are primarily terrestrial. Most live in humid environments, commonly in caves. Some have invaded arid habitats, but few are aquatic. Four classes are recognized Diplopoda (millipedes), Chilopoda (centipedes), Pauropoda, and Symphyla, with 10,000, 3000, 500, and 160 species, respectively. The last two are minute dwellers of the forest floor that consume living or decaying vegetation. Symphylans look somewhat like centipedes but the adults have 14 trunk segments and 12 pairs of limbs the posterior end of the trunk has two conical cerci and spinning glands. Members of the class Pauropoda are soft-bodied, blind myriapods with 9 to 11 leg-bearing trunk segments and branched antennae. FIGURE 4 Members of the subphylum Myriapoda. (A)...

Cark Op I I Ik Young

Parental care of eggs and young is common in some centipedes, arachnids, and insects. Some female spiders wrap their eggs in silk and carry them around, or stay close by until they hatch. Scorpions and some other arachnids brood their eggs and carry recently emerged young on their backs. Among insects, it is usually the female who takes responsibility for child-care, but the males may also play a part in some families.

Arthropods

Modern Arthropod groups are three Chelicerates, Crustaceans and the Uniramia. Chelicerates are spiders, ticks, mites, scorpions, horseshoe crabs and sea spiders. Many of these have book lungs, and most are terrestrial. Crustaceans are mostly marine, but some inhabit freshwater and a few are terrestrial the fairy shrimps, water fleas, isopods, krill, crabs, shrimps, lobsters, copepods, barnacles as well as a small newly discovered group, the Remipedia. Uniramia include the centipedes, millipedes and insects. Uniramians have one pair of antennae and one or two maxilla, as well as a pair of mandibles. Uniramians breathe through their body surface, gills or tracheae.

Millipedes

Like centipedes, which they superficially resemble, millipedes gain their name from an abundance of legs. Two pairs arise from most apparent segments, a condition created by embryonic fusion of alternate body somites, each carrying one pair of legs, a pair of tracheal openings, and a ventral nerve cord ganglion, to form double somites (diplosomites). The resulting secondary segment (diplosegment), therefore, has two ganglia and four legs and spiracles, all of which are located in the metazonite, representing the posterior of the fused somites. The prozonite, representing the anterior of the fused somites, lacks appendages and can thus be telescoped into the Figure 4.9 MILLIPEDES AND CENTIPEDES, (a) Spirobolid millipede (Orthoporus sp., Spiro-streptidae). (b) Polydesmid millipede (Barydesmus sp., Platyrhacidae). (c) Giant centipede (Scolopendra gigantea, Scolopendridae). (d) House centipede (Scutigera coleoptrata, Scutigeridae).

Phoresy

The major carriers for mites are insects and most insect species carry phoretic mites. Phoretic association of the Astigmata have been reviewed by Houck and OConnor and of the mesostigmata by Hunter and Rosario (Houck and OConnor 1991 Hunter and Rosario 1988 OConnor 1982). While phoretic mites have been well described for fleas (Siphonaptera), they are not known for lice (Phthiraptera) (Fain and Beaucournu 1993 Schwan 1993). Other arthropods such as woodlice (Isopoda), centipedes (Chilopoda) or sand hoppers (Amphipoda) might serve as carriers equally well (Bloszyk et al. 2006 Colloff and Hopkin 1986 Pugh et al. 1997). However, phoretic mites have not (yet) been described for spiders (Araneae). Also vertebrates such as lizards, hummingbirds, small mammals and bats may function as transport hosts (Athias-Binche 1984 Colwell 2000 Domrow 1981 Krantz and Whitaker 1988 Tschapka and Cunningham 2004).

Serotonin Group

A relationship similar to that between tyrosine and dopamine exists between the amino-acid tryptophan and the brain substance serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (Figure 8.9). Tryptamine is known in the venom of scorpions, while serotonin is found widely in the venom of honeybees, centipedes, and at least two spiders. Serotonin is not found in the venom of ants or solitary wasps but social wasps have it in quantity, as much as 1 jLig per insect. It is present in the barbs of the larvae of the Tiger moth Arctia caja (Plate 11) and a saturnid butterfly larva. Their origins in insect venoms are presumably from phenylalanine but this has not been proven. The same substance is in the hairs of the common stinging nettle Urtica dioica.

Polydesmus angustus

Physical characteristics Flat-backed millipedes resemble centipedes. The bodies of the adults are flat, dark brown, with about twenty segments. They measure 0.6 to 1.0 inches (14 to 25 millimeters) in length and are about 0.16 inches (0.4 millimeters) wide. The plate segments covering the back are ridged along their lengths. The antennae and legs are longer than in most other millipedes. Walls, J. G. The Guide to Owning Millipedes and Centipedes. Neptune City, NJ T.F.H. Publications, 2000. Shelley, R. M. Centipedes and Millipedes with Emphasis on North American Fauna. Kansas School Naturalist 45, no. 3 (1999) 1-15.

Grassland

Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Emperor scorpion European earwig European marsh crane fly European mantid Garden symphylan German cockroach Giant whip scorpion Gladiator Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Indian stick insect Large blue

Rainforest

Cubacubana spelaea Dead-leaf mantid Dead leaf mimetica Emperor scorpion European earwig Forest giant German cockroach Giant water bug Giraffe-necked weevil Green lacewing Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Hair follicle mite Hercules beetle Hispaniola hooded katydid Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Javan leaf insect Jungle nymph Leaf-cutter ant Linnaeus's snapping termite Madeira cockroach Mantid lacewing Mediterranean fruit fly

Andorra

Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Lithobiomorpha

These are small, shiny centipedes with long legs. They are fast-moving and often occur under stones or in the top layer of soil. The body is usually limited to about 15 segments dorsal tergites are not uniform in size, and usually a large segment alternates with a small one. Some of these species can produce a slimy secretion from pores on the terminal legs this substance is used as a means of defense. The legs break at a specifically weakened joint near the base the leg lost to predators is replaced at the next molt.

Australia

Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Liposcelis bostrychophila Long-bodied cellar spider Lucerne flea Macleay's specter Mantid lacewing Mediterranean fruitfly Moth lacewing Oriental cockroach Pea aphid Scolopender Silverfish Spider bat fly

Austria

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Common harvestman Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European marsh crane fly European stag beetle Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Diplopoda

Mass migrations ofmillipedes have been reported, and this is sometimes accompanied by large numbers of centipedes. Masses ofindividuals can be involved, and their path may inter-ceptrailroad tracks, buildings, and agricultural fields. InJapan, Parafontaria laminata has been reported in mass migrations that seem to occur at intervals of 7 or 8 years. Other large populations include those ofGymnostreptuspyrrocephalus in South Africa (Natal) and Pseudopolydesmus serratus in the USA (Ohio). Mass

Canada

Walkingstick Common harvestman Eastern dobsonfly Eastern subterranean termite European earwig European mantid European marsh crane fly German cockroach Giant salmonfly Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth

Croatia

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

France

Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European marsh crane fly European stag beetle Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Greece

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth European earwig European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth

Macedonia

Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Liposcelis bostrychophila Long-bodied cellar spider Long-winged conehead Lucerne flea Mediterranean fruitfly Pea aphid Sacred scarab Silverfish

Morocco

Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid German cockroach Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Liposcelis bostrychophila Long-bodied cellar spider Long-winged conehead Lucerne flea Mediterranean fruitfly Sacred scarab Scolopender Silverfish

Portugal

American cockroach Antlion Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid German cockroach Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

San Marino

American cockroach Antlion Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European stag beetle Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Slovenia

Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European stag beetle Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Switzerland

American cockroach Antlion Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European marsh crane fly European stag beetle Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Scutigermorpha

These centipedes are relatively small and have 15 pairs of very long legs the legs give them the appearance of being larger than they actually are. The antennae are also long and delicate, and are moved in a whip-like manner over the body. Eyes are large and faceted (about 100), and resemble the eyes of insects. Legs and the tarsi are very long, sometimes with as many as 400 segments, and the walking and running ofthis arthropod are very unusual. Instead of only the terminal tarsal segments contacting the surface, all the tarsal segments are applied to the surface. Scutigera spp. easily lose their legs, especially the last pair they break at a weakened joint near the base of the leg. The mouthparts are strong and they have large mandibles. The respiratory system is a single tracheal opening in the middle of the back, one on each segment except the last. Scutigermorph centipedes are predatory hunters, and they feed primarily on insects. They run and leap upon their prey the long legs...

Myriapoda

The Myriapoda has not been widely supported as a natural group (although see Zrzavy et al., 1998b). Indeed, several studies indicate that the centipedes (Chilopoda) and sym-phylans are basal (although not themselves related), while the Dignatha (Pauropoda and Diplopoda millipedes ) comprise a sister group to the Hexapoda (e.g., Wheeler, 1998 Kraus, 2001). The symphylans are sometimes classified with the Dignatha into a larger group called the Progoneata. Other views on the phylogeny of Myriapoda are presented by Wheeler et al. (1993a), Kraus and Kraus (1994), Borucki (1996), Kraus (1998, 2001), Ax (1999), and Regier and Shultz (2001b). Overall there is little consensus on myriapod phy-logeny, and we have adopted for the time being the conservative, traditional view of relationships (Figure 3.23). The biology of myriapods is summarized by Camatini (1979). The centipedes (Chilopoda) are, along with the millipedes (Diplopoda), the best-known group of Myriapoda. Centipedes range in size...

The Extant Hexapoda

The Hexapoda (usually given the rank of superclass) contains all six-legged arthropods. Traditionally, the closest relatives of hexapods have been considered to be the myriapods (centipedes, millipedes, and their allies). However, as shown in Box 7.1, molecular sequence and developmental data plus some morphology (especially of the compound eye and nervous system) suggest a more recent shared ancestry for hexapods and crustaceans than for hexapods and myriapods. The immense phylum Arthropoda, the joint-legged animals, includes several major lineages the myriapods (centipedes, millipedes, and their relatives), the che-licerates (horseshoe crabs and arachnids), the crustaceans (crabs, shrimps, and relatives), and the hexapods (the six-legged arthropods - the Insecta and their relatives). The onychophorans (velvet worms, lobopods) have been included in the Arthropoda, but are considered now to lie outside, amongst probable sister groups. Traditionally, each major arthropod lineage has...

Symphylans

Symphylans are very active arthropods found in damp soils rich in organic matter.They are closely related to centipedes and millipedes, so are not insects.They are often confused with springtails, but symphylans are larger, have more legs, move faster, and do not jump.They tend to be found in moist soils. Symphylans are general feeders and may attack many vegetable and ornamental crops. Garden symphylans injure germinating seeds and seedlings in particular, and they can be a serious problem on African violets when the pots are placed in moist sand or soil on the bench. Several natural enemies attack garden symphylans, including predatory mites, beetle larvae, centipedes, and diseases, but none has been used effectively in greenhouses. Lamyctes spp. These centipedes are small, reddish-brown and asexual. In one experiment, five adult centipedes each in 4-inch pots quickly cut a symphylan population of 40 adults per pot in half, and greatly reduced symphylan injury to the plants.The...

Phenols

Simple phenols are found occasionally in the defensive secretion of millipedes and more commonly in opilionids. Three species of millipede have been shown to produce phenol and 2-methoxyphenol from tyrosine, but phenylalanine is not incorporated, which is an indication they are unable to hydroxylate phenylalanine. Other alkylphenols e.g. 2,3-dimethylphenol, guaiacol or O-methylcatechol, and 5-ethyl-2-methylphenol, of unknown origin) are present in some opilionids. The centipede Scolopendra subspinipes multilans (Plate 5) secretes 8-hydroxyisocoumarin or centipedin (Figure 8.10), which has an antibiotic effect. In biosynthetic studies 14C acetic acid was efficiently incorporated, indicating it is probably produced through a polyketide like mellein.

Scolopendromorpha

Scolopendromorpha

These large centipedes live primarily in the tropics and sub-tropics, but several species occur in peridomestic habitats in temperate regions. There are about 100 species of Cryptops and 90 species worldwide in Scolopendra (Fig. i8.9d). These centipedes are distinguished by large bodies that consist of 25 segments, and by their enlarged terminal legs, which have large spines. They have large poison claws, and a history of biting people. They occur indoors and often find harborage in shoes or clothing. Numerous bites have been recorded from Hawaii and some of the Pacific Islands. There is some evidence that these centipedes have poison glands in their legs. In Nigeria, Scolopendra morsitans may inflict wounds by crawling over exposed skin. The large centipede, S. heros,irritates the surface of the skin when it crawls on the body. When alarmed, this centipede can make tiny incisions with its feet, and venom from the legs enters the punctures. Figure 18.9 Arthropoda Uropygi, Chilopoda,...

Insect Zoos Defined

The term insect zoo has been applied to facilities of many different types. Defined broadly, an insect zoo or insectarium is an exhibit facility dedicated to the display of live insects housed in a separate room, building, or distinct exhibit hall and maintained primarily for public visitation. Insect zoos typically are permanent, year-round facilities that house live insects and related groups of arthropods (arachnids, centipedes, millipedes, and crustaceans) and occasionally representatives of other invertebrate groups. Insect zoos have been built in zoological parks, natural history museums, botanical gardens, county parks, horticultural centers, amusement parks, nature reserves, and universities, and on privately owned land. Interest in their development has increased (excluding the period between the first and second World Wars) with growing public interest in biodiversity and the documented success of insect exhibits (Table I).

The Thorax

Lateral portions of the eusternum (there is no distinct sternopleurite in Hexapoda, although it does occur in Chilopoda). The coxopleurite (katapleurite) is involved in the articulation with the coxa of the leg (the other articulation is hypothesized to have been on the sternopleurite), and when present in Arthropoda, it is there otherwise in Hexapoda there is primitively no ventral articulation. Instead, a secondary articulation is present. The anapleurite and coxopleurite typically fuse to form the pleural wall of the body. In winged insects a pleural wing process is formed dorsally to make up the other part of the fulcrum in the wing articulation (see the discussion of Pterygota and wings later in this chapter). A pleural sulcus is formed running from the pleural wing process to the coxal articulation (at the pleural coxal process). The pleural sulcus corresponds to an interior ridge to strengthen the pleuron during the contraction of the flight muscles. The pleural sulcus divides...

Devonian 414358 mya

Specimens entombed in Rhynie chert preserve fine microscopic details such the structure of setae and cuticle. The fauna mostly includes arachnids, such as trigonotarbids and mites, but also contains remains of crustaceans, eurypterids, and centipedes (Shear et al., 1987, 1998 Anderson and Trewin, 2003) and a pair of mandibles - described by Tillyard as Rhyniognatha hirsti in 1928b, but recently reported as the earliest definitive insect (Engel and Grimaldi, 2004a) (Figure 5.8). Although the identity of the hexapod remains from Rhynie was challenged by Crowson (1985), who believed the remarkably modern Rhyniella to be a later contaminant, the recovery of additional specimens have established that springtails were definitively present in the Early Devonian environment of Scotland (Scourfield, 1940a,b Whalley and Jarzembowski, 1981). Even with the excellent preservation of Rhynie chert, the higher-level assignment of Rhyniella has been difficult but appears to be within the modern family...

Geophilomorpha

These centipedes are subterranean, as their name implies. They are worm-like centipedes with slender bodies composed of 35-181 segments, and they have short legs. They live in loose soil in natural areas, but occur in suburban landscaping and gardens. They feed on soft-bodied insects and earthworms their mouthparts are small and unable to bite humans. In a number of geophilomorphs the secretions of sternal glands are luminescent. In Europe, the luminescent species include Geophilus simplex, G. electricus, G. carpophagus, Necrophloeophagus longicornis, Haplophilus subterraneus, and Strigamia crassipes. In Micronesia, East Indies, and West Africa, the red secretion of Orphaneus brevilabiatus is strongly phosphorescent. In the USA, G. vittatus emits a faint blue-green glow. In general, the geophilomorphs lack eyes, which makes it unlikely that luminescence is used for recognition or sexual attraction. G. car-pophagus is commonly found in houses and outbuildings in the UK.

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