Chicken Coop Plans

How to Build a Backyard Chicken Coop

Making your own chicken coop will probably be the best decision that you have ever made for your home. Why, do you ask? Building your own chicken coop does three things for you. First, it saves you a lot of money. Having someone else build a coop for you can set you back a lot of cash that you shouldn't have to spend. Second, you can build it how YOU want it done. A coop that comes with your house will likely not meet the specific needs of your flock. Third, you will look on what you have built with pride, knowing that you have built something lasting and high quality. This ebook teaches you how to build your own chicken coop from scratch without having to have any previous construction experience or much money at all. Make the coop that your flock deserves! Read more here...

How to Build a Backyard Chicken Coop Summary

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I started using this book straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

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15 Chicken Coop Plans By Easy Coops

Now you can choose the healthy self-sufficient life style and build your own chicken coop in your backyard without any experience or elaborated woodwork tools. You will learn how to build a durable great looking coop that will withstand weather changes. This book will help you supply your family with daily healthy delicious eggs. Some of my doubts before buying the book was the lack of experience I had and I felt great that all plans didn't require any woodwork background because they are all explained in details and illustrations and the best advantages for me is that every plan has very accurate measurements which helped a lot. This 600 pages book has 15 different coop plans to choose from. Each plan have a security measures to keep hens save and have a space for adults to walk. By reading each plan you will learn the best durable material which is very cost effective and you will learn how to make all the ventilations and insulations work. The book was created by a collection of big names and certified professionals in the field of agriculture and sustainable farming. I find it is the best book in this field so far. Read more here...

15 Chicken Coop Plans By Easy Coops Summary

Contents: Ebook, Plans
Price: $29.99

The Functional Approach

While foraging, whereas others maximise the fitness of offspring per host attacked. 3. What constraint assumptions apply, i.e. what factors limit the animal's choices, and what limits the 'pay-off' that may be obtained. There may be various types of constraint upon foragers these range from the phylogenetic, through the developmental, physiological and behavioural, to the animal's time-budget. Taking as an example clutch size in parasitoids, and the constraints there may be on a female's behavioural options, an obvious constraint is the female's lifetime pattern of egg production. In a species that develops eggs continuously throughout its life, the optimal clutch size may be larger than the number of eggs a female can possibly produce at any one time. An example of both a behavioural and a time-budget constraint upon the behavioural options of both parasitoids and predators is the inability of the forager to handle and search for prey simultaneously. Here, time spent handling the...

Eusociality Social Organization And Social Diversity

All ants have haplodiploid sex determination. This property probably had a major role in the evolution of their eusociality through kin selection. Males are haploid, having only a single set of chromosomes, and thus the sperm that individual males produce is genetically homogeneous. Hence, the (diploid) daughters of the same mother and father are unusually closely related to one another, a circumstance likely to have favored the evolution of female workers. Nevertheless, there can be continuing conflicts within colonies between the workers and the queen (or queens) over the sex ratios they produce and which colony members produce the males. Queens can choose to produce either unfertilized (haploid) eggs destined to become males or fertilized (diploid) eggs. The latter may develop into workers or potential new queens (gynes) generally depending on how much food they receive as larvae. The workers may or may not be sterile. Fertile workers produce viable (unfertilized) haploid eggs that...

Lice Of Poultry And Other Birds

Although louse populations may be very large on domestic fowl, including domestic chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, pea fowl, and pheasants, no pathogens are known to be transmitted by these lice. Large populations often occur on birds with damaged beaks whose grooming ability is significantly impaired. The chicken body louse (Menacanthus stramineus) (Fig. 4,14) often causes significant skin irritation and reddening through its persistent feeding. Occasionally the skin or soft quills bleed from their gnawing and scraping action, with the lice readily imbibing the resultant blood. The shaft louse (Menopon gallinae) also causes significant losses to the poultry industry, including deaths of young birds with heavy infestations. Large infestations of chicken body lice, shaft lice, and other poultry lice may be injurious to the host by causing feather loss, lameness, low weight gains, inferior laying capacity, or even death.

Hairy fungus beetle Typhaea sterocorea T fumata

Adults are 2.2-3.0 mm long, and brown to dark brown. The antennal club is three-segmented, the prothorax has basal pits, and the elytra have setae arranged in longitudinal rows. It is often confused with the drugstore beetle, Stegobium paniceum, but the antennae are distinctly clavate in the drugstore beetle, the antennae are serrate. It occurs in houses, warehouses, retail stores, flourmills, and sometimes outdoors. It is frequently found in maize fields where it is attracted to decaying grain. It is a pest of stored grain and seeds, tobacco, peanuts, and cacao. It occurs as a pest in the litter in poultry houses in some areas of Europe. A closely related species, T. decipiens, has been

Nest Associates and Ectoparasites

Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm beetle (Alphito-bius diaperinus) have been found boring into and living in the scrotum of a rat, and feeding on sick domestic chicks and young pigeons. Similarly, the hide beetle (Dermestes maculatus) can feed on living poultry and has caused deep wounds in adult turkeys. In laboratory experiments, lesser mealworm beetles killed snakes and a salamander, all of which were devoured by the mealworms. The voracious and aggressive behavior of this commonly abundant tenebrionid makes it a significant pest in poultry houses. In addition to their direct attacks on birds, the lesser mealworm and hide beetle larvae are major causes of structural damage to poultry houses. After reaching their final instar, the larvae migrate into the insulation of poultry houses to seek pupation sites. The larval tunnels and holes produced in insulation and wood framing cause Staphylinid beetles of several species in the genus Philon-thus feed as both larvae and adults on...

Egglimitation Versus Timelimitation

Parasitoids can be divided into pro-ovigenic and synovigenic species, (subsection 2.3.4). Pro-ovigenic parasitoids emerge with their full potential lifetime complement of mature eggs, whereas synovigenic parasitoids emerge with at most only part of their complement, this fraction varying considerably among synovigenic species (ranging from very nearly one down to zero) (Jervis et al., 2001). These different patterns of egg production can be understood as adaptations to differences in the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of hosts (Jervis et al., 2001 Ellers and Jervis, 2003) - natural selection can be expected to lead to reproductive strategies that approach (but not necessarily attain) a quantitative match between egg supply and the availability of suitable hosts. Whereas Heimpel and Rosenheim (1998) concluded, from a literature survey of fifteen species, that egg-limitation is common in the field, the results of empirical field studies suggest that only some females may, in...

Veterinary Importance

Several species of fleas feed on birds. At least three of these are important pests to the poultry industry. The sticktight flea is principally a poultry pest in the subtropical and tropical regions of the New World. These small fleas typically attach to the nonfeathered areas of birds such as the head, comb, wattle (Fig. 7.11), and anus. Large flea populations can cause anemia. Feeding sites can become ulcerated when this occurs around the eyes, blindness often results and the host is unable to feed. Secondary infections may develop. The European chicken flea (Ceratophyllusgallinae) is a nonsedentary ectoparasite of domestic fowl in several parts of the world, including eastern North America. In western North America the western chicken flea C. niger), another nonsedentary species, is a parasite of domestic fowl and several species of wild birds. All of these poultry fleas can cause host emaciation and reduced egg production when they occur in large numbers.

Public Health Importance

Raised slats and wood shavings in nest boxes in broiler breeder houses provide harborage for the bugs. Indications of cimicid infestations include fecal spots on eggs, nest boxes (Fig. 5.14), and wooden supports, skin lesions on the breasts and legs of birds, reduced egg production, and increased consumption of feed. Chicken bugs are not known to transmit any avian pathogens. However, chickens and other fowl raised in poultry houses heavily infested with chicken bugs are irritable and often anemic. Morbidity in such cases may be high, and young birds may succumb from blood loss. FIGURE 5.14 Fecal spots, indicative of cimicid activity, along scams of nesting boxes of laying hens in a poultry house heavily infested with Cimex lectularius. (Photo by G. R. Mullen) FIGURE 5.14 Fecal spots, indicative of cimicid activity, along scams of nesting boxes of laying hens in a poultry house heavily infested with Cimex lectularius. (Photo by G. R. Mullen)

The Case for Entomophagy among Dinosaurs

In all probability, almost every dinosaur, even those considered vegetarians, were in actuality omnivores at some point in their lives, certainly when they were in the rapid growth stages and possibly also during periods of egg production. You may question how we arrived at that conclusion, but even today characterizing an animal as an herbivore, omnivore, or carnivore is an almost impossible task, so we assume the same held true for dinosaurs. Few vertebrates are truly one or the other. For example, mammals begin their lives dependent on a food source rich in protein, mother's milk. Fruit- and nectar-eating birds feed bugs to their young, and because many insectivorous birds take fruits and seeds as well, most birds would be considered omnivores.133 So both mammals and birds start life eating animal proteins, and although some go on to become herbivores as adults, overall they could be classified as omnivores. Since some paleontologists consider birds living dinosaurs, the principle...

New Strategies in Managing the Golden Apple Snail

The snails can replace meat meal or fish meal as a concentrate feed supplement for animals. Also, Mallard ducks can be pastured in rice fields after harvest so that they can feed on the golden apple snail. Duck herding and a little feed supplementation can yield up to 60-70 increase in egg production (Tacio 1987). A project to control golden apple snail infestations by turning the snails into a marketable processed product was implemented in Hawaii (Tamaru et al. 2004). In one field, the snails were given different types of food (lettuce and chicken, chicken feed, catfish feed, trout feed, or mahimahi feed), while in another field, they were fed taro tops, catfish feed, or trout and chicken feed. The taste and texture of the golden apple snail were tested using a taste test in Princeville Resort, Hanalei, Kauai, which is a four-star establishment. Using the snails from the feeding trials, the chef of the resort was asked to prepare dishes at his discretion two dishes were created. It...

Wolbachia in Psocoptera

Increasingly, Wolbachia is molecularly identified in psocid species . Populations of several species tested negative for Wolbachia (Perotti et al , 2006) Wolbachia-infected populations of L. bostrychophila have been reported from the United Kingdom and Australia . The Australian populations show multiple infections with the A and B strains of Wolbachia The bacteria are readily detected in booklice with the use of multiple displacement amplification (MDA) (Mikac, 2007) A B strain of Wolbachia has also been detected in Liposcelis tricolor (Dong and Wang, 2004) . L. tricolor was then treated for 4 weeks with 1 rifampicin to remove Wolbachia Crosses between Wolbachia-free and Wolbachia-infected strains exhibited lower egg production (Dong et al , 2006) Compared with the control strain, the Wol-bachia-free strain had in the first and second generation prolonged developmental times and reduced survivorship of immature stages, as well as reduced fecundity and longevity, resulting in much...

Environmental Neural and Endocrine Interaction

Only very rarely is a physiological event directly influenced by environmental stimuli. Temperature changes, through their effect on reaction rate, can, in poikilotherms at least, alter the rate at which an event is occurring. However, in almost all situations stimuli are first received by sensory structures that send information to the central nervous system to be dealt with. Some of these stimuli require an immediate response, which, as noted earlier in this chapter, is achieved via the motor neuron-effector organ system. The information received by the central nervous system as a result of other stimuli, however, initiates longer-term responses mediated via the endocrine system. This information, then, must be first translated within the brain into hormonal language. The center for translation is the neurosecretory system. Depending on the stimulus and, presumably, the site of termination of the internuncial neurons, different neurosecreteory cells will be stimulated to synthesize...

Investigating Physiological Resource Allocation And Dynamics

Intra- and interspecific differences in the pattern of resource allocation are of considerable interest, as they help ecologists and evolutionary biologists to understand why individuals and species differ in terms of key life-history traits. Negative correlations between the amounts of resources serving different life-history functions such as egg production and survival are particularly intriguing, as they imply the existence of trade-offs, and as such are evidence that life-histories are compromises. An associated goal of ecologists 2. Among abdominal 'reserves' there will be a trade-off between those resources allocated to initial egg production and those allocated to survival (fat body and other reserves). This is predicted by general life-history, on the basis of between-function competition for limited resources (see Bell and Koufopa-nou, 1986 Van Noordwijk and De Jong, 1986 Smith, 1991). Empirical support for this hypothesis comes from the known differential allocation of...

Development and castes

Termites are social insects, but their incomplete metamorphosis, with egg, nymph, and adult phases, distinguishes them from other social insects, such as ants, bees, and wasps, which develop through egg, larva, pupa, and adult stages. Another difference is the presence of a functional male in the termite community. In other social insects, only the female survives after the nuptial flight, and total egg production is limited by the usually single mating. Termite eggs are small and laid singly, though sometimes in quick succession, as in the case of Macrotermes with an average of one every 2 s over long periods. In M. darwiniensis the eggs are laid in batches of 16-24 and cemented together in two rows, similar to oothecae of some cockroaches and grasshoppers. The nymph phase consists ofa series of instars separated by molts, which may be recognized by the size of the individual (larva, worker, or nymph), the number of antennal segments, or the presence of wing pads. The reproductive...

Colonies and life cycles

The queen and king are groomed and fed by workers, which enter the royal cell through small openings in its hard protective wall. Queens lay eggs at a steady rate workers carry the eggs to incubation chambers. The number of eggs produced by the queen varies depending on the species, and the age of the queen. In tropical regions, egg production is continuous throughout the year, although there are seasonal fluctuations. In termites living in temperate regions, egg production Composition of the colony, in terms of young and mature forms, varies for different species and during different periods of the year. The cyclic presence in the colony of immature and terminal forms is more pronounced in termites in temperate regions than in those in the tropics. In north temperate regions colony activity and egg production are reduced during winter months. In mature colonies, the alates usually appear over a short time before emergence. They remain in the nest for an extended period if...

Ecosystemlevel Patterns

Intraspecific competition for dung occurs in a range of beetle species, expressed as a reduction in the number of eggs laid female at high densities. There is also evidence for interspecific competition in which the presence of beetles of one species reduces egg production of a second species. In these instances the competition is frequently asymmetric, and the larger species has a greater effect on the smaller species than the other way round, particularly at high beetle densities. The competitive advantage of larger beetles is associated with preemptive dung burial, whereby they bury a greater proportion of dung in the first day.

Dietary requirements of insects reared in the laboratory

Both flies and beetles have specific nutrient requirements in order to satisfactorily complete their life cycles. Flies require carbohydrate as an energy source, water and protein. Protein is particularly important to females for the development of the ovarioles and for egg production. They also require a number of vitamins and minerals.

Mass rearing of natural enemies for release

Emergence success, egg production, while traits more directly related to behavioural performance such a diurnal rhythmicity, flight propensity and genetic variation are rarely measured (King et al., 1985). There is perhaps a need to move away from production orientated evaluation of efficiency, in terms of number of insects produced per monetary unit, to a production quality approach where the success of the project is evaluated in terms of the relations of responses between natural insects and reared insects to a given objective (Boller, 1972).

Behavior And Reproduction

Courtship and mating usually occurs early in the evening or after dark. The males of many species offer a dead insect as food to females during courtship. They will sometimes steal insects caught in spider webs. If a suitable dead insect is not available, the male may try to steal one from another courting male, or he may spit up a blob of saliva and offer it to the female instead. Once he has a gift he flaps his wings and releases a pheromone (FEH-re-moan), which is a scent to attract females. The pheromones also attract other males who may try to steal his gift. Females select mates on the basis of the size and quality of their gift. In some species, males pretend to be females and then steal the gift of males attempting to court them. The thief then mates with a female while she eats his gift of stolen food. In some species of scorpionflies (Panorpa) the males use a special clamp on their abdomens to grab the edges of the female's wings to prevent her from flying away. Mating...

Food Uptake And Utilization

The fat body is an important site of hemolymph protein synthesis, especially in the late juvenile stages of endopterygotes and in adult female insects. Storage hexamers (so-called because the proteins comprise six homologous subunits) have been characterized from more than 20 species in six orders, mainly Diptera and Lepidoptera (Telfer and Kunkel, 1991). They reach very high concentrations in the hemolymph just before metamorphosis, and are effectively serving as a store of amino acids for use in adult tissue and protein formation. If stored individually, the amino acids would create a severe osmotic problem for the insect. In silk moth (Bombyx) caterpillars, for example, the hemolymph protein concentration increases sixfold from the fourth to the final instar, in preparation for spinning the cocoon, metamorphosis, and egg production. When the adult emerges, the concentration has fallen to about one-third the value at pupation. During sexual maturation in females of many species, the...

Box 52 Nuptial feeding and other gifts

There is controversy concerning whether and how much the female typically benefits from such male-proffered gifts. In some instances nuptial gifts may exploit the sensory preferences of the female and provide little nutritional benefit, while luring the female to accept larger ejaculates or extra copulations, and thus allow male control of insemination. However, a meta-analysis showed that female lifetime egg and offspring production increased with mating rate in groups of insects that either used nuptial feeding or did not, but that egg production increased to a larger extent in insects using nuptial gifts, whereas increased mating rate tended to increase female longevity of insects with nuptial feeding but decrease longevity of species not using nuptial feeding. Thus there appears to be no negative effect of polyandry (mating of females with multiple males) on the female reproductive fitness of insects with nuptial feeding.

Autosterilization systems

House whitefly, black and white targets treated with triflumuron to control the lesser housefly Fannia canicularis in commercial rabbit houses, and control of midges in sewage beds (Langley, 1998). Populations of housefly Musca domestica have also been suppressed using autosterilization in commercial poultry houses in India (Howard and Wall, 1996a).

Case Study Control of Musca domestica in poultry units using autosterilization Howard and Wall 1996ab

The housefly Musca domestica is amongst the most well known and familiar nuisance pests of human and livestock habitations (West, 1951). The abundance of organic waste material in animal houses combined with shelter and elevated temperature provide an ideal habitat for houseflies. Poultry houses are particularly prone to severe infestations with losses due to M. domestica estimated at US 60 million in 1976 in the USA (Anon, 1976 Axtell and Arends, 1990). Field trials carried out at a poultry house in Bhubaneswar in North-East India indicated the potential of autosterilization systems. Targets consisted of 20 X 50 cm rectangles of white polyester cloth treated with a triflumuron suspension and 50 w v sucrose solution and stapled to a wire frame. Control targets were treated with 50 w v sucrose solution alone. Fifty treated targets were placed in each of two treatment houses, suspended in five rows of ten. Similarly, 50 untreated (sucrose only) targets were suspended in the control...

Dispersal From The Natal Site

Myint and Walter (1990) examined aspects of the mating system of Spalangia cameroni (Hyme-noptera Pteromalidae), a quasi-gregarious para-sitoid of housefly pupae, in 'field' investigations carried out in a poultry shed. How closely this represents natural conditions, and thus the quantitative importance of the results, remains unclear. Males generally emerged before females developing in the same batch of hosts, and most wasps left the natal site without mating (mating was observed when the emergence of males and females happened to coincide). Olfactometer (odour choice) experiments in the laboratory (section 1.5.2) showed that males were attracted to odours emanating from the host habitat. Males were also trapped in the field at patches of hosts suitable for oviposition by females (in both the presence and the absence of females) and at batches of parasitized hosts from which females were close to emerging. Sib-mating and local-mating are probably uncommon in natural populations.

Description Of Dorsal View Of Fowl

Ornithonyssus Bacoti

Chicken mite (Dermanyssusgallincte) Also called the red poultry mite, this cosmopolitan species (Fig. 23.4) is the most common dermanyssid mite that bites people. It parasitizes a very broad range of hosts. This mite is especially a problem in the Palaearctic region and in the United States, where most cases occur in poultry houses or around buildings where pigeons, house sparrows, or starlings are nesting. The mites live in nesting materials, where they spend most of their time, moving onto the birds to feed on blood at night. Consequently, workers in poultry operations seldom experience a biting problem while working during the daytime, even when the houses are heavily infested. However, individuals who enter infested buildings at night may be readily bitten. Occasionally, pet canaries and parakeets also serve as sources of human infestations.

Prevention And Control

Walk Through Milking Parlor

Achieve desired levels of control in poultry houses, stables, and dairies (Axtell, 1986). For example, sanitation and surveillance of adult abundance are commonly used in combination. When densities exceed the tolerance threshold, sanitation can be increased and adulticides can be used to keep flies below intolerable densities. Choices among alternative practices are determined by effectiveness against the target insect, practicality in a given situation, costs of the practices in materials and labor, and environmental acceptability.

Camponotus marginatus decipiens C rasilis Fig 94g

Camponotus modoc ( C. herculeanus subsp. modoc) Workers are 8-14 mm long and black. The gaster is subobaque, exceptfor a narrow band at the posterior edge of each segment the anterior margin of the clypeus lacks a medial depression the scape does not have erect hairs, and there are coarse and dense setae on the gaster. One queen usually founds a colony. They are usually established in damp or decaying wood mature colonies contain 9000-12 000 workers. Egg-laying begins soon after the major emergence ofwinged females and males, which is in April and extends to June. Eggs hatch in 2-5 weeks. Larval development is during the summer, pupae are present in the colony in July, and most ofthe workers have emerged by August and October. Egg production stops in August and September, and the larvae presentin the colony overwinter with the queen. No food is consumed by the colony during the colony dormant phase, which is October through January. Eggproduction resumes and larvae develop into pupae...

Astigmata Sarcoptiformes

Thyreophagus Entomophagus

Grain mite, cheese mite, Acarus siro (Fig. 18.1a) Adults are about 0.4 mm long and opaque white. Infested materials include cereals, processed cereal products, cheese, medicinal herbs, and litter in poultry houses. This mite can infesta variety of food materials, and often lives on fungi. It occurs in house dust and is strongly allergenic to humans. Eggs are laid singly and females produce 1-24 eggs per day fecundity is about 230 eggs, but is 670 with powdered milk or wheat germ as food, at 20 C and 80 RH. Development from egg to adult is 78 days at 4 C, and 9.2 days at 28 C and 80 RH. Females reared on wheat germ live 42-51 days males live a few days less. Grain moisture of at least 13.4 is required for survival feeding and other activity stops at 0 C. Optimal conditions are 20-25 Cand 75-80 RH. It is a cosmopolitan species, but is more abundant in temperate regions. Closely related species,

Important Families Of Termites

The damp-wood termites nest in wet and rotting wood, especially fallen logs and stumps in forests. Damp-wood termites were formerly grouped within harvester termites (Hodotermitidae), but now are considered a separate family. Damp-wood termites are among the largest termites, some reaching almost 25 mm in length. Most individuals retain marked developmental plasticity. There are about 20 species and they are limited to forests in the Americas, Eurasia, Africa, and Australia. Egg production per queen is relatively low (< 30 per day) and colony size is moderate, up to approximately 10,000. and India. Queen egg production and colony size are similar to those of damp-wood termites.

Imaginal or adult phase

Decticous Pupa

Reproduction is the main function of adult life and the length of the imaginal stadium, at least in the female, is related to the duration of egg production. Reproduction is discussed in detail in Chapter 5. Senescence correlates with termination of reproduction, and death may be predetermined in the ontogeny of an insect. Females may die after egg deposition and males may die after mating. An extended postreproductive life is important in distasteful, aposematic insects in allowing predators to learn distastefulness from expendable prey individuals (section 14.4).

Urban ecosystems

The urban interface with agriculture often occurs when suburban sprawl, bringing with it residential and commercial land use, is developed close to animal farms. Dairy cattle, livestock (swine and beef), and poultry operations are often encroached upon as the suburban ring of cities spreads. The flies typically associated with the manure at these operations can disperse several kilometers and create a nuisance during nearly all months of the year. Dairy cattle herds may have 50-200 cows in temperate regions they are housed in barns or buildings for part of the year in warm regions they are outside most of the time. Poultry egg production is usually in 100 000-bird buildings in groups of 10 or more, and they function year-round. Manure produced at these operations can support large populations of house fly (Musca domestica) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans), and in some regions M. sorbens. An average 1.8-kg laying hen produces aboutii3 gofwetmanure daily this is 11300 kg per day or...

Hormones

An important class of chemicals transported by the blood are hormones (Novak 1975, Slama et al. 1974). There are many types, and they vary in their effects, even those from a single endocrine organ. A few activities mediated by hormones are molting, metamorphosis, egg production, color changes, daily activity rhythms, dormancy, and caste determination in social insects. Many of these processes are controlled by the balance and timely production of only a few basic hormones such as the molting hormone (ecdysone) and the juvenile hormone (neotenin), often under the overriding command of neurosecretory hormones.

Hostfeeding

Hosts but also feed on them (Jervis, 1998 Jervis and Kidd, 1986, 1999 Heimpel and Collier, 1996 Ueno, 1998a,b, 1999a,b,c). Host-feeding supplies the females with materials for continued egg production and for somatic maintenance (Bartlett, 1964 Jervis and Kidd, 1986, 1999). Giron et al. (2002) showed that the parasit-oid Eupelmus vuilletti host fed upon the host's haemolymph. The haemolymph is rich in proteins and various sugars, and it is these sugars that are responsible for the increased longevity of E. vuilletti which have been allowed to host feed. In some parasitoid species, host feeding causes the host to die (so-called 'destructive' host-feeding), so rendering it unsuitable for ovi-position. Even with those species that remove small quantities of host materials such that the host survives feeding ('non-destructive' hostfeeding), the nutritional value of the host for parasitoid offspring may, as a result of feeding, be reduced and the female may lay fewer (gregarious species),...

Culturing Insects

The situation is more complex if host-specific insect parasitoids of pests are to be reared for biocontrol purposes. Not only must the pest be maintained in quarantine to avoid accidental release, but the appropriate life stage must be available for the mass production of parasitoids. The rearing of egg parasitoid Trichogramma wasps for biological control of caterpillar pests, which originated over a century ago, relies on availability of large numbers of moth eggs. Typically these come from one of two species, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella, and the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, which are reared easily and inexpensively on wheat or other grains. Artificial media, including insect hemolymph and artificial moth eggs, have been patented as more efficient egg production methods. However, if host location by parasitoids involves chemical odors produced by damaged tissues (section 4.3.3), such signals are unlikely to be produced by an artificial diet. Thus...

Dermestidae

Carpet Beetle Skin Reaction

Dermestids are 2-12-mm-long oval or elongate oval beetles with short, clubbed antennae. They usually have a distinct color pattern, and many are covered with fine setae or scales. Full-grown larvae are 4-12 mm long, brown and usually with long setae on the sclerites and posterior end they are usually slow-moving. Their primitive habitat was probably feeding on decomposing animal matter, but, as the group evolved, feeding habits radiated to include other material. They are general scavengers on plant and animal material, including carrion, leather, furs, skins, museum specimens, wool and silk, and stored-food products. Larvae are capable ofdigesting keratin, which is a proteinaceous constituent ofwool and other animal materials. Some dermestids visit flowers, and several species require pollen for successful egg production. Adults are capable flyers and can move indoors through doors and windows. About 55 species of dermestids are primary or secondary pests of stored foods. Many...

Oviducts

It is reasonable to conclude from the above that the greatest degree of parental (female) investment per egg is made by anhydropic egg-producing species. Indeed, Godfray (1994) and Mayhew and Blackburn (1999) assumed the selection pressures for divergence in egg size among parasitoids to be linked to the selection pressures for divergence in egg type (hydropy anhydropy), with the result that small egg size is associated with hydropic egg production, and large egg size associated with anhydropic egg production. Jervis et al. (2001, 2003) therefore took hydropy and anhydropy to be proxy measures of such investment when seeking a link between egg type and the timing of egg production (ovigeny index). In a comparative analysis of over sixty parasitoid wasp species, hydropic egg-producing species were shown to have, on average, a significantly higher ovigeny index (see above) than anhydropic species. Given that Jervis et al. (2003) have shown ovigeny index to equate with initial egg load,...

Phlebotominae

Sand flies breed in humid, terrestrial habitats. Breeding sites include cracks and crevices of soil, manure, rocks, masonry, rubble, forest litter, tree hollows, tree crotches, termite mounds, animal burrows, nests, poultry houses, barns, stables, homes, privies, cesspools, cellars, wells, and other dark, moist locations where organic material is present. Several important neotropical species breed in the litter of the forest floor (e.g., Lutzomyia jjomezi, L. panamensis, L. pessoana, and L. trapidoi). Two important Eurasian species, Phlebotomus papatasi and P. argentipes, breed in organic soil in and around stables, barns, and houses. P. perfiliewi breeds in farm manure in

Mealybugs

Mealybugs are pink, soft-bodied insects covered with a white, waxy, cottony material.The wax filaments at the end of the body of the longtailed mealybug are slender and as long as or longer than the body, while those of the citrus mealybug are very short.The citrus mealybug females are wingless, 1 16 inch (1-3 mm) long, and ovoid.They lay up to 600 small (V100 inch or 0.3 mm long), yellow eggs within a protective mass of white, cottony threads. Egg production is temperature dependent, with fewer eggs laid under warmer tempera-tures.The longtailed mealybug does not lay eggs but produces live young, similar to aphids. After depositing the egg mass or live young over a period of 5-10 days, the female mealybug dies.The immatures search for feeding sites on which to settle. Male nymphs settle and spin an elongated, white waxy cocoon. Females have three instars and are mobile throughout their lives. Adult males are tiny, winged insects. Under normal greenhouse conditions, the production of...

The female system

The main functions of the female reproductive system are egg production, including the provision of a protective coating in many insects, and the storage of the male's spermatozoa until the eggs are ready to be fertilized. Transport of the spermatozoa to the female's storage organ and their subsequent controlled

Ticks and Mites

Soon the larva would molt Into a nymphal stage, scale another plant, and await another passing dinosaur. Molting after the second meal into an adult female meant the subsequent feeding would be a longer one, furnishing protein needed for egg production. The large volume of blood consumed at that meal would swell her body up to ten times the original size. During a lifetime, she would deposit several thousand eggs, ensuring survival of the species.

Reproduction

Most insects are sexual and thus mature males and females must be present at the same time and place for reproduction to take place. As insects are generally short-lived, their life history, behavior, and reproductive condition must be synchronized. This requires finely tuned and complex physiological responses to the external environment. Furthermore, reproduction also depends on monitoring of internal physiological stimuli, and the neuroendocrine system plays a key regulatory role. Mating and egg production are known to be controlled by a series of hormonal and behavioral changes, yet there is much still to learn about the control and regulation of insect reproduction, particularly if compared with our knowledge of vertebrate reproduction.

Parthenogenesis

Parthenogenesis, producing in most species female offspring, may confer two advantages. In a species whose population density may be (temporarily) low, the ability of an isolated female to reproduce parthenogenetically may ensure survival of her genotype until the population density increases and males are again likely to be encountered. More often, however, parthenogenesis is employed as a mechanism that provides a rapid mode of reproduction, to enable a species to take full advantage of temporarily ideal conditions. Thus, a parthenogenetic female, who does not require to locate, or be located by, a male can devote her time and energy to egg production. Further, all her offspring are female, so that her maximum reproductive potential can be realized. The disadvantage of parthenogenesis is that the genotype of successive generations remains more or less constant so that adaptation of a species to changing environmental conditions is very slow. To counteract this, many species...

Theridiidae

Mating occurs in April and May a single mating is sufficient to fertilize several batches of eggs. Egg-sacs are gray, spherical or globular, about 9.5 mm diameter, and placed in the web. Fecundity for one season is about 10 egg-sacs, with 250-750 eggs per egg-sac total egg production may exceed 2500. Hatching occurs in 14-30 days, and newly emerged young remain in the egg-sac until the first molt, and sometimes until the second molt. Young spiders are pale brown to reddish brown, and they have a pattern of stripes on the abdomen and alternating bands on the legs. Young spiderlings often use ballooning to disperse. Development is dependent on food and environmental conditions for males it is 30-100 days and 4-7 instars, for females 60-120 days and 7-9 instars. Spiderlings usually overwinter and become adults the following year. Adult males live 28-40 days and females live 1-2 years.

Qualitative Aspects

Both the rate of egg production and the number of eggs produced may be markedly affected by the nature of the food available. Many common flies, for example, species of Musca, Calliphora, and Lucilia, may survive as adults for some time on a diet of carbohydrate. However, for females to mature eggs a source of protein is essential. Pickford (1962) showed that M. sanguinipes females fed a diet that included wheat and wild mustard (Brassica kaber) or wheat and flixweed produced far more eggs (579 and 467 eggs per female, respectively) than females fed on wheat (243 eggs ), wild mustard (431 eggs ), or flixweed (249 eggs ), alone. These differences in egg production resulted largely from variations in the duration of adult life, though differences in rate of egg production were also evident. For example, percent survival of females fed wheat plus mustard after 1, 2, and 3 months was 93 , 60 , and 13 , respectively. These females produced, on average, 8.4 eggs female per day. The...

Gorging on Dinosaurs

The main function of the blood meal, which is approximately 20 protein, is to supply nutrients for egg production. It also provides some nourishment for the adults, and mosquitoes have been kept alive for over 80 days on some 30 blood meals.140 Aside from blood, biting flies generally require sugar supplements for long-term survival.141142

Cimicidae

Figure Cimex

Haematosiphon inodorus occurs in Central America and Ornithocoris toledoi in Brazil. C. pipistrelli is associated with birds in Europe and C. columbarius occurs in poultry houses and pigeon cotes. Oeciacus hirundinis infests martin nests it sometimes bites humans when adults and nymphs move inside houses when nests are abandoned. Hesperocimex sonorensis is an ectoparasite of purple martins (Proge subis) in southwestern USA and northern Mexico. Leptocimex boueti is associated with bats in West Africa, but has also been reported biting people in native huts. Other bat bugs include Stricticimex parvus, which also feeds on humans in bat-caves in Thailand. Cimex spp. takes a large blood meal in a short time, and this behavior permits them to feed infrequently. Bed bug adults can engorge in about 5 min and take up to 1.8-24 Mg of blood per second. The blood meal weighs from 3.7 (first-stage nymph) to 4.9 (fifth-stage nymph) times the body weight of the unfed insect. Molting and egg...

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