A

FIGURE 7.25. Zoraptera. (A) Wingless morph of male Zorotypus hubbardi, a species found in the United States; and (B) winged female of Z. nascimbenei, a Cretaceous species from Burmese amber. [A, from C. N. Smithers, 1991, Zoraptera, in: The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. I (CSIRO, ed.), Melbourne University Press. By permission of the Division of Entomology, CSIRO. B, from M. S. Engel and D. A. Grimaldi, 2002, The first Mesozoic Zoraptera (Insecta), Amer. Mus. Novit. 3362:20 pp.]

of moniliform antennae and biting mouthparts. Compound eyes and three ocelli occur only in the winged form. A prominent Y-shaped epicranial suture can be seen on the head. The prothorax is prominent. The mesonotum and metanotum are simple in apterous individuals. When present, the wings are membranous and have a much-reduced venation. They are frequently shed at the base, though there is no basal suture as occurs in termites. The legs have a large coxa and a two-segmented tarsus. The 11-segmented abdomen carries a pair of unsegmented cerci. There is no ovipositor, and, in males, the external genitalia are frequently asymmetrical. The homologies of the genitalia are uncertain.

The gut contains a very large crop, a short midregion, and a convoluted hind part. Six Malpighian tubules occur. The nervous system is specialized with only three thoracic and two abdominal ganglia. The reproductive organs are typically orthopteroid, with two follicles per testis and six panoistic ovarioles per ovary.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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