Active Ventilation

By alternately decreasing and increasing the volume of the tracheal system through compression and expansion of larger air tubes, a fraction of the air in the system is periodically renewed and the diffusion gradient between tracheae and tissues kept near the maximum. These breathing (ventilation) movements may be continuous as in locusts and dragonflies, intermittent as in cockroaches, or occur only after activity as is seen in wasps. The volume changes are normally brought about by contraction of abdominal dorsoventral and/or longitudinal muscles, which increases the hemolymph pressure, thus causing the

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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