Insects release a wide array of volatile chemicals that affect the behavior of other animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate (Blum 1981; Whitman et al., 1990). The great majority of these secretions are used as defensive allomones; however, a few examples of allomones used aggressively have been discovered (Blum, 1996). The chemical nature of allomones is extremely varied (see Blum, 1981). However, it has long been recognized that some allomones are chemically very similar, even identical, to alarm pheromones and sex attractants, leading to the proposal that the original role for these compounds was defensive, with the pheromonal function arising secondarily (Blum, 1996; Ryan, 2002). The allomones are typically produced in specific exocrine glands, though in a few species the allomone is sequestered within the hemolymph, to be released as a result of "reflex bleeding," that is, when hemolymph is exuded at joints and intersegmental membranes. The biosynthetic pathways are, for most allomones, not well understood, but it is evident that

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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