Apterygote Hexapods

and probably act as sense organs. In adult proturans the abdomen is 12-segmented; in the 119

newly hatched animal there are only 9 abdominal segments, 3 being added anamorphically during postembryonic development. Short, unsegmented or 2-segmented appendages with eversible vesicles are found on the first three abdominal segments. Cerci are absent.

Internally there are no distinct Malpighian tubules, but six papillae occur at the junction of the midgut and hindgut, and these may serve an excretory function. A tracheal system is present in Eosentomoidea, originating from paired meso- and metatergal spiracles, but not in other groups. The tracheae do not anastomose. The nervous system is generalized, with discrete ganglia in the first seven abdominal segments.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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