Apterygote Hexapods

side of abdominal segments 1-7. Extant species fall into four families (LEPISMATIDAE, 125

NICOLETIIDAE, LEPIDOTRICHIDAE, and MAINDRONIIDAE), of which only the first two are of any size. Though most Lepismatidae live in litter, under bark, etc., the family includes a number of domiciliary species (found in buildings) that have been transported worldwide by human activity, including the common silverfish, Lepismodes inquilinus, and the firebrat, Thermobia domestica. The former prefers warm and humid environments and is often found in places such as bookcases, cupboards, and bathrooms. Firebrats, in contrast, live in hot, dry environments, for example, in the vicinity of fireplaces, furnaces and boilers, and in bakeries. They are highly resistant to desiccation. Both species may cause considerable damage to books, clothing, and foods that contain starch or cellulose, and they are among the few animals that produce an intrinsic gut cellulase. The Nicoletiidae, which are distinguished from Lepismatidae by not having compound eyes, live principally in caves or underground though some are inquilines in the nests of ants and termites, stealing the hosts' food or causing the host to regurgitate fluids on which they feed.

The Lepidotrichidae should be mentioned in view of this family's important phylo-genetic position. Prior to 1961 the family was known only as fossils. However, in 1961 Wygodzinsky discovered a living representative, Tricholepidion gertschi, in California, that possesses a large number of primitive characters. This species is clearly the most archaic living apterygote insect discovered to date and is likely to be similar to the common ancestor of other modern groups.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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