FIGURE 9.36. Noctuoidea. The pale western cutworm, Agrotis orthogonia (Noctuidae). (A) Adult; and (B) larva. [After C. J. Sorenson and H. F. Thornby, 1941, The pale western cutworm, Bulletin #297; By permission of the College of Agriculture and Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University.]

the plant stem level with the ground. LYMANTRIIDAE (LIPARIDAE) (tussock moths) are medium-sized moths, very similar to the noctuids, whose larvae are often densely hairy and may have osmeteria on the sixth and seventh abdominal segments. Most of the 2500 species of lymantriids occur in the Old World tropics. A few species, including Lyman-tria dispar (gypsy moth) and Euproctis chrysorrhoea (brown-tail moth), both introduced from Europe into North America, are important defoliators of shade and fruit trees (see Chapter 24, Section 4.3). ARCTIIDAE (tiger moths and footman moths) (11,000 species) are nocturnal or diurnal moths whose wings are often conspicuously spotted or striped. Many diurnal species are aposematic or mimic other insects including both Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (in the latter case the arctiids may have their abdomen constricted at its anterior end). Some nocturnal species emit ultrasonic sounds that may either interfere with the echolocating ability of bats or warn the bats that the moths are distasteful. Larvae are often very hairy and known as woolly bears, or are aposematically colored and able to store secondary plant substances (notably alkaloids and cardenolides). Occasionally, species becomes pests, for example, Hyphantria cunea (fall webworm) which lives gregariously in large webs in apple, oak, and ash.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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