A—South America aData from various sources.

bA, registered and in production;B, intensively studied.

reason for this has been the difficulty of diagnosing and identifying protozoan pathogens compared to other groups. Other deterrents are the inability to culture the protozoa outside their host, their slow-acting nature, difficulties with long-term storage, and safety concerns (some Microsporidia have a rather broad host range and may even grow in vertebrate tissue culture). Currently, only one protozoan, Nosema locustae, is registered in the United States, for use against rangeland grasshoppers and Mormon crickets. It may not always be lethal, though infected insects feed less and produce fewer eggs. Other species of Nosema and another microsporidian Vairimorpha necatrix are being tested against a variety of forest and agricultural lepidopterous pests. Protozoan pathogens may be of greatest value when used in conjunction with conventional insecticides, the latter providing the quick mortality

TABLE 24.10. A Partial List of Microsporidia Known To Act as Biological Control Agents in Populations of Insect Pestsa



Nosema scolyti Unikaron minitum Nosema sp. N. fumiferanae N. lymantriae N. tortricis N. locustae

Pleistophora oncoperae N. pyrausta Amblyspora sp.

Several bark beetles Dendroctonus frontalis Pissodes strobi Choristoneura fumiferana Lymantria dispar Tortrix viridana Many species of grasshopper Oncopera alboguttata Ostrinia nubilalis Aedes cantator a After Roberts et al. in Pimentel (1991, Vol. 2).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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