FIGURE 5.4. Microcoryphia and Zygentoma. (A) Machilis sp. (Machilidae); and (B) Lepismodes inquilinus (Lepismatidae). [A, reprinted from R. E. Snodgrass, 1952, A Textbook of Arthropod Anatomy, Cornell University Press. B, from A. D. Imms, 1957, A General Textbook of Entomology, 9th ed. (revised by O. W. Richards and R. G. Davies), Methuen and Co.]

abdominal segments 8 and 9. In males the appendages of the ninth abdominal segment fuse to form a median penis.

Internally Microcoryphia exhibit features that might be expected of primitive insects. They have 12-20 Malpighian tubules, a nervous system that includes paired longitudinal connectives, 3 thoracic and 8 abdominal ganglia, 9 pairs of spiracles and tracheae that do not anastomose with those of adjacent segments, and a primitive reproductive system. In females there are typically seven or eight panoistic ovarioles on each side of the body, and in some species these are arranged in a more or less segmental manner. Females lack a spermatheca. In males each testis comprises three or four follicles, and the vas deferens on each side is double, the two channels being connected by several transverse tubes.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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