FIGURE 10.17. Cleroidea. (A) A soft-winged flower beetle, Malachius aeneus (Melyridae); and (B)a checkered beetle, Enoclerus nigripes (Cleridae). [From E. S. Dillon and L. S. Dillon, 1972, A Manual of Common Beetles of Eastern N. America. By permission of Dover Publications, New York.]

found in stored cereals. Although it may cause some damage to the cereals, this tends to be offset by the beneficial effect this species has by consuming other insects in the grain.

Superfamily Lymexyloidea

Lymexyloidea are a group of less than 50 species, all of which are placed in one family, LYMEXYLIDAE. Both adults and larvae are elongate insects that bore in tree stumps and logs that are beginning to decay. They feed on a fungus that grows in the tunnels, transfer of the fungus to new locations being effected by the females which carry spores in pouches near the tip of their ovipositor. Crowson (1981) included Strepsiptera (Section 6) in this superfamily, as the family Stylopidae. The weak evidence in support of this arrangement has been reviewed by Lawrence and Newton (1982).

Superfamily Cucujoidea

Though outnumbered by the Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea in terms of species, the Cucujoidea are the most diverse superfamily of beetles as is indicated by the large number of families (more than 50) that it contains. Most of these are relatively small, that is, contain less than 500 species, and the majority of the approximately 45,000 species in the superfamily are contained in the few very large families outlined below. Crowson (1981) subdivided the superfamily into two sections, Clavicornia and Heteromera, which other authors (e.g., Lawrence and Britton, 1991) raised to the level of superfamily, namely Cucujoidea (sensu stricto) and Tenebrionoidea, respectively.

Within the Clavicornia, the NITIDULIDAE (sap beetles) (Figure 10.18A) (3000 species) constitute one of the most diverse families in terms of their habits. Some species live in flowers, where they feed on pollen and nectar; others feed on fungi or ripe fruit, or are leaf miners, or prey on insects. A few species live in the nests of social Hymenoptera. Most CRYPTOPHAGIDAE (600 species) are very small, hairy beetles that feed on fungi. They are most common in moldy materials, including stored products. A few species live in the

FIGURE 10.18. Cucujoidea. (A) A sap beetle, Prometopia sexmaculata (Nitidulidae); (B) larva, pupa, and adult of the convergent ladybug, Hippodamia convergens (Coccinellidae); (C) the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Tenebrionidae); (D) adult of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (Tenebrionidae); and (E) the striped blister beetle, Epicauta vittata (Meloidae). [A, D, E, from E. S. Dillon and L. S. Dillon, 1972, A Manual of Common Beetles of Eastern N. America. By permission of Dover Publications, New York. B, C, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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