Biological Control

Biological control, in the sense used here, may be described as the regulation of pest populations by natural enemies (parasites, predators, and pathogens). Essentially, it includes four strategies, depending on the nature of the control agent and the pest: (1) natural (passive) control in which the agent is an endemic species and the pest is either endemic or introduced; (2) augmentative control in which populations of an endemic control agent are increased, either by cultural means in the field or by mass-rearing and release; (3) classical biological control (perhaps the best known form) where an exotic control agent is imported to control an introduced, coevolved pest; and (4) neoclassical biological control in which the agent is an exotic species brought in to control a native pest (Lockwood, 1993). This latter strategy is, in fact, a specific form of a wider approach known as the "new association" in which the control agent is an exotic species that has not coevolved with the pest (which may be native or introduced) (Hokkanen and Pimentel, 1984, 1989; Hokkanen, in Pimentel, 1991, Vol. 2). Interwoven among all of these strategies is "conservation biological control" (Barbosa, 1998). This entails the use of tactics that alter the habitat of the control agent so as to improve its survival, reproduction, etc., leading to a greater chance of success. The tactics are wide-ranging and include methods that affect the control agent either directly (e.g., providing it with alternate food sources and nest sites) or indirectly (e.g., adjusting

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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