C

FIGURE 10.14. Cantharoidea. (A) A soldier beetle, Chauliognathuspennsylvanicus (Cantharidae); (B) a firefly, Photurispennsylvanica (Lampyridae); and (C) a net-winged beetle, Calopteron reticulatum (Lycidae). [From E. S. Dillon and L. S. Dillon, 1972, A Manual of Common Beetles of Eastern N. America. By permission of Dover Publications, New York.]

or predaceous, obtaining their food in liquid form following extraoral digestion. The EUCNEMIDAE (1200 species) is another widespread group, especially common in the Tropics, whose members, like elaterids, make a clicking sound as they flick themselves into the air so that they are sometimes called false click beetles. Larvae occur in rotting wood and probably feed mainly on fungi or slime molds.

Superfamily Cantharoidea

Nearly 11,000 species of Cantharoidea are known, most of these being assigned to three families. The worldwide family CANTHARIDAE (Figure 10.14A) contains about 5000 species of soft-bodied, generally hairy beetles, commonly known as soldier beetles and found on flowers where they eat pollen and nectar. Larvae inhabit soil and litter where they are mostly predaceous. The approximately 2000 species of LAMPYRIDAE (fireflies) (Figure 10.14B) are renowned for their ability, in both adult and juvenile stages, to produce light. This feature has obvious sexual significance in mature insects. However, its purpose is by no means clear in the larval and pupal stages, Sivinski (1981) suggesting that it may be a form of warning coloration against predators. In adults light is produced by special cells on the abdomen; in larvae and pupae the entire body is faintly luminescent. The LYCIDAE (net-winged beetles) (3500 species) (Figure 10.14C) are brightly colored, distasteful beetles found on tree trunks or foliage. They are commonly mimicked by other insects, notably moths, flies, wasps, and other beetles. Larvae live in soil or litter, or beneath bark, where they feed on rotting vegetation and, possibly, slime molds and yeasts.

Series Bostrichiformia

As presently constituted, this is likely aparaphyletic group, and relationships among and within the higher taxa are not well understood, especially the makeup of the Dermestoidea and its relationship to the Cucujiformia.

FIGURE 10.15. Dermestoidea. (A) The larder beetle, Der-mestes lardarius (Dermestidae) adult and larva; (B) a carpet beetle, Anthrenus scrophulariae (Dermestidae) adult and larva; and (C) the warehouse beetle, Trvgoderma variabile (Dermestidae) adult and larva. [A, C, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. B, courtesy of Cornell University Agricultural Experimental Station.]

Superfamily Dermestoidea

Most of the 900 or so species of Dermestoidea belong to the family DERMESTIDAE (skin and carpet beetles) (Figure 10.15), a group that contains a number of economically important, cosmopolitan species. Adults may be found on flowers, feeding on nectar and pollen, or on the larval food. Larvae are scavengers on a variety of plant and animal materials including furs, hides, wool, museum specimens, clothing, carpets, and various foods such as bacon and cheese. Dermestes, Anthrenus, Attagenus, and Trogoderma are genera that contain economically important species.

Superfamily Bostrichoidea

About one-half of the 2800 species of Bostrichoideabelong to the family ANOBIIDAE, which includes the "deathwatch" beetles, so-called because the tapping noise they make as they bore was supposed to be a sign of a future death in the house. Most species are wood borers in the larval stage, but adults leave the wood for mating purposes. A few species do not live in wood but attack stored products such as cereal products and tobacco. Economically important species include the cosmopolitan furniture beetle, Anobium punctatum, and the drugstore beetle or biscuit weevil, Stegobium paniceum (Figure 10.16A). The related family PTINIDAE (spider beetles) (Figure 10.16B), with about 450 species, includes no wood-boring forms, but only beetles associated with stored food, and dried animal

FIGURE 10.16. Bostrichoidea. (A) The drugstore beetle, Stegobium paniceum (Anobiidae) adult and larva; (B) the humpbacked spider beetle, Gibbium psylloides (Ptinidae); and (C) the apple twig borer, Amphicerus hamatus (Bostrichidae). [A, B, from L.A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. C, from E. S. Dillon and L. S. Dillon, 1972, A Manual of Common Beetles of Eastern N. America. By permission of Dover Publications, New York.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

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