Larvae with a distinct head and biting mouthparts, with or without thoracic legs, only rarely with prolegs. Pupae adecticous and commonly exarate, rarely obtect.

The Coleoptera are the most diverse order of insects, with more than 300,000 described species, including about 24,000 in North America, 20,000 in Australia, and 4000 in Britain. Cursory examination of their basic structure may do little to suggest why the group should be so successful, yet they have come to occupy an amazing variety of habitats, with the single exception of the sea, though many littoral species occur. The single most important structural feature contributing to the order's success has been the development of elytra (sclerotized fore wings), which protect the hind wings when these are not in use and enable the insects to occupy enclosed spaces and cryptic habitats. Other important developments associated with this mode of life include the housing of the coxal segments of the legs in cavities, flattening of the body, and an increase in the proportion of the body surface that is sclerotized, the latter being especially important in protecting the insect from predators and disease. Finally, the spiracles have become hidden in the subelytral cavity, so that water loss from the tracheal system is significantly reduced, allowing the beetles to invade arid environments. Most beetles are phyophagous, including more than 135,000 species in just two superfamilies, Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea. The evolution of these two groups, and their species richness, appears to have been closely tied to the evolution of the angiosperms (Farrell, 1998).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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