322 bark or in rotting wood where they feed on fungi. CUCUJIDAE (1200 species) occur world wide and most are found under bark or leaf litter feeding on decaying material and fungi. Others are predaceous and some (e.g., Oryzaephilus surinamensis, the saw-toothed grain beetle) are pests of stored products. The 900 species of LANGURIIDAE constitute a mainly tropical group of brightly colored beetles whose larvae are mostly stem borers. Others are saprophagous and a few are pests of stored products. PHALACRIDAE (600 species) are common in most parts of the world, mostly associated with flowers or vegetation. Most larvae feed on fungi. The CERYLONIDAE (650 species) are predominantly tropical in distribution where they are found in leaf litter, rotting wood, etc., and probably feed on fungi. A few species occur in bird droppings and nests of ants and mammals. Most of the 500 species of LATHRIDIIDAE, a widely distributed family, are spore feeders, though a few species have become cosmopolitan pests of stored products.

About two-thirds of the 27,000 species of Heteromera fall into the family TENEBRI-ONIDAE (darkling beetles) (Figure 10.18C,D), making it one of the largest beetle families. Adults, though generally dark in color, show a remarkable divergence of form. In contrast, larvae are extremely uniform and generally resemble wireworms. Most species are ground-dwelling insects found beneath stones or logs, but they are also found in rotting wood, fungi, nests of birds and social insects, and stored products where they may occur in enormous numbers and do considerable damage. It is to the latter group that the familiar flour beetles (Tribolium spp.) and mealworms (larvae of Tenebrio spp.) belong. Members of some species are capable of withstanding considerable periods of desiccation, and are able to absorb moisture from the air should the need arise. The COLYDIIDAE, with more than 1400 species, form a mainly tropical family of beetles that are generally asociated with rotting wood, where it is thought that they prey on the larvae of wood-boring beetles. A few species occur in ant or bee nests. The OEDEMERIDAE (1000 species) form a widely distributed family of usually brightly colored beetles that eat pollen, nectar, and sometimes insects. Many species are aposematic mimics of Lycidae and contain cantharidin (see below). Larvae feed on rotten wood and the cosmopolitan species, Nacerdes melanura, damages wharves, ship timbers, etc. MORDELLIDAE (1200 species) are worldwide, the adults being found in flowers, their larvae in rotten wood, stems ofherbaceous plants, rarely in fungi. Adult ADERIDAE (1100 species) normally occur on foliage, while the larvae of this widespread but uncommon family live in rotten wood and leaf litter, and under bark. The MELOIDAE (blister beetles) (Figure 10.18E) form a well-known group of about 3000 species of frequently strikingly colored beetles. The family is of particular interest for the general occurrence in its larvae of heteromorphosis (Chapter 21, Section 3.3.2) and the production in the adults of cantharidin, a substance extracted from the elytra and used in certain drugs (and which causes blisters when applied to the skin). The life history is somewhat varied, but generally the early instars feed on grasshopper eggs or bee larvae and their food stores; a non-feeding, overwintering stage, the pseudopupa or coarctate larva, then follows, after which develops either another active feeding stage or a true pupal stage. Adults are phytophagous and may do much damage to solanaceous and leguminous crops. A smaller but closely related family is the RHIPIPHORIDAE (250 species), a unique family of beetles in which the larvae are at least temporarily endoparasitic, in addition to being heteromor-phic. Bees, wasps, cockroaches, and, possibly, some beetles are parasitized. Adults, which are short-lived and found in flowers, usually have both elytra and wings. In the subfamily RHIPIDIINAE, however, only males have wings; females are apterous and somewhat larviform. The family thus has many parallels with the Strepsiptera and must enter into any discussion of the evolution of this group (see Section 6).

Superfamily Chrysomeloidea

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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