310 phytophagous, mycophagous, or algophagous. Members of the superfamily are tradition ally divided into two sections, Geadephaga (terrestrial forms) and Hydradephaga (aquatic forms), an arrangement that has received support from both cladistic analysis (Beutel and Haas, 1996) and molecular studies (Shull et al., 2001).

The Geadephaga contains the families RHYSODIDAE and CARABIDAE (the latter, perhaps paraphyletic, is split into many families by some coleopterists). Rhysodidae are small, black beetles that live in fungus-infected rotting wood in both the adult and larval stages. About 150 species are known, mostly from warmer areas. In contrast, about 30,000 species of Carabidae have been described from all parts of the world. About 80% of these belong to the subfamily CARABINAE (ground beetles), which, as their common name suggests, live in the soil, under stones or bark, or in logs. The elytra are frequently fused together and the wings atrophied. Both adults and larvae are carnivorous, and some species are of considerable benefit through their destruction of pest Lepidoptera. Calosoma sycophanta (Figure 10.7A,B) was introduced into the United States from Europe in the early 1900s for the control of the gypsy and browntail moths. Members of the subfamily CICINDELINAE (tiger beetles) (Figure 10.7C) are brightly colored, voracious predators. Larvae are typically ambush predators living in vertical tunnels in soil, rarely wood. Their flattened head forms a plug at the opening of the tunnel where they await passing prey. The subfamily comprises about 2000 species and is mainly tropical or subtropical. Among the several families of Hydradephaga are the HALIPLIDAE, DYTISCIDAE, and GYRINIDAE. The Haliplidae (Figure 10.7D) constitute a small (200 species) but widely distributed and common family of water beetles. Adults generally crawl among the green algae on which they (and the larvae) feed, though they can swim. The Dytiscidae (Figure 10.7E,F) contains about 3000 species and is especially common in the palearctic region. Both adults and larvae are predaceous. The Gyrinidae (Figure 10.7G,H), with about 700 species, includes the familiar whirligig beetles, recognized by the compound eyes split into upper and lower parts and their habit of swimming en masse in tight circles on the water surface. Adults feed on insects that fall onto the water surface while the larvae are bottom-dwelling predators.

Suborder Myxophaga

Myxophaga are minute beetles with clubbed antennae, a prothorax with a notopleural sulcus, and hind wings that have an oblongum and fringe of long hairs and are coiled apically. Larvae are aquatic and have mandibles with a molar area.

Crowson (1955) proposed this suborder for four families, totaling about 60 species, that were previously included in the Polyphaga. The four families are LEPICERIDAE (two species in Mexico and northern South America), TORRIDINCOLIDAE (25 species in South America, central and southern Africa, and Madagascar), MICROSPORIDAE (18 species in North and Central America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and Madagascar), and HYDROSCAPHIDAE (13 species in North America, Asia, North Africa, and Madagascar). The biology of all families is poorly known. Adults are found at stream margins, sometimes in the splash zone. They and their aquatic larvae appear to feed on algae growing on rock surfaces. A few species of Hydroscaphidae have been collected in hot springs.

Suborder Polyphaga

The beetles of the suborder Polyphaga have hind wings that lack an oblongum and are never coiled distally. A notopleural sulcus is absent from the prothorax, the hind coxae are

FIGURE 10.7. Caraboidea. (A) A ground beetle, Calosoma sycophanta (Carabidae); (B) C. sycophanta larva; (C) a tiger beetle, Cicindela sexguttata (Carabidae); (D) Peltodytes edentulus (Haliplidae); (E) a diving beetle, Dytiscus verticalis (Dytiscidae); (F) Dytiscus sp. larva; (G) a whirligig beetle, Dineutes americanus (Gyrinidae); and (H) D. americanus larva [A, B, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. C, D, from R. H. Arnett, Jr., 1968, The Beetles of the United States (A Manual for Identification). By permission of the author. F, from E. S. Dillon and L. S. Dillon, 1972, A Manual of Common Beetles of Eastern N. America. By permission of Dover Publications, New York. H, from A. G. Boving and F. C. Craighead, 1930, An illustrated synopsis of the principal larval forms of the order Coleoptera, Entomol. Am. XI:1-351. Published by the Brooklyn Entomological Society. By permission of the New York Entomological Society.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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