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332 the venom glands may have produced mucus that coated and protected the eggs. In extant species they produce a variety of materials; for example, in Siricoidea (wood wasps) their secretion renders the food plant more susceptible to the fungal symbiont, and in Apocrita the secretion paralyzes or kills the prey. The secretion of Dufour's gland also has a variety of functions, including lubrication of the ovipositor, "labeling" the host (to inform conspecifics that it has already been used), and release of alarm and trail-marking pheromones (Chapter 13, Sections 4.4 and 4.5).

Larva and Pupa. Larvae of Symphyta have a distinct, well-sclerotized head, and 3 thoracic and 9or10 abdominal segments. The mandibulate mouthparts are well developed. If a larva is a surface feeder, as in sawflies, it usually has well-developed thoracic legs and six to eight pairs of prolegs. In boring or mining species the thoracic legs are reduced and prolegs absent. Larvae of Apocrita are apodous and resemble maggots. The head is only weakly sclerotized or much reduced and, in parasitic forms, sunk into the prothorax. Heteromorphosis is common in parasitic species. The first-instar larva is extremely varied in form, but the final instar is always maggotlike. Pupae are adecticous and in most species exarate. With the exception of certain groups (Cynipidae, Chalcidoidea, most Apoidea, and many Formicidae), a cocoon is spun in which pupation occurs.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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