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328 (males only) and seven abdominal spiracles; in both sexes of most other species only the first abdominal spiracle is functional. The nervous system is highly concentrated, with an anterior ganglionic mass that includes the original thoracic centers and the first two abdominal ganglia, and a posterior mass comprising the posterior abdominal ganglia. The reproductive system of males includes paired testes and tubes that lead to a common duct. In females the reproductive organs histolyse during the third larval instar, releasing the eggs into the hemocoel.

Larva and Pupa. The first-instar larva is a very small (0.08-0.30 mm long), free-living creature known as a triungulin (Figure 10.21C). It has small antennae and reduced mouthparts, but well-formed legs and long caudal setae. Should this reach a suitable host it metamorphoses into an apodous, grublike form. Pupae are adecticous and exarate in males but suppressed in females except in Mengenillidae.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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