350 Sudd (1967), Wilson (1971), and Holldobler and Wilson (1990) [ants]; Evans and Eberhard

(1970), Spradbury (1973), Edwards (1980), Ross and Matthews (1991), and O'Neill (2001) [wasps]; Stephen et al. (1969), Butler (1974), Michener (1974, 2000), Alford (1975), Free (1982), and Seeley (1985) [bees]. Hymenopteran phylogeny and classification are discussed by Malyshev (1968), Brothers (1975), Gauld and Bolton (1988), Goulet and Huber (1993), Ronquist (1999), and Vilhelmsen (2001). Goulet and Huber (1993) also provide a key to the world's Hymenoptera families. The British Hymenoptera may be identified from the Royal Entomological Society's handbooks (Richards, 1977, and other authors). North American and Australian families are dealt with by Arnett (2000) and Naumann (1991), respectively.

Alford, D. V., 1975, Bumblebees, Davis-Poynter, London.

Arnett, R. H., Jr., 2000, American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Askew, R. R., 1971, Parasitic Insects, American Elsevier, New York.

Brothers, D. J., 1975, Phylogeny and classification of the aculeate Hymenoptera, with special reference to Mutil-lidae, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 50:483-648.

Brown, W. L., Jr., 1982, Hymenoptera, in: Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms, Vol. 2 (S. P. Parker, ed.), McGraw-Hill, New York.

Butler, C. G., 1974, The World of the Honeybee, 2nd ed., Collins, London.

Doutt, R. L., 1959, The biology of parasitic Hymenoptera, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 4:161-182.

Dowton, M., and Austin, A. D., 1994, Molecular phylogeny of the insect order Hymenoptera: Apocritan relationships, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:9911-9915.

Dowton, M., and Austin, A. D., 1999, Models of analysis for molecular datasets for the reconstruction of basal hymenopteran relationships, Zool. Scripta 28:69-74.

Edwards, R., 1980, Social Wasps: Their Biology and Control, Rentokil, East Grinstead, U.K.

Evans, H. E., and Eberhard, M. J. W., 1970, The Wasps, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

Free, J. B., 1982, Bees and Mankind, Allen and Unwin, London.

Gauld, I., and Bolton, B. (eds.), 1988, The Hymenoptera, Oxford University Press, London.

Gordh, G., Legner, E. F., and Caltagirone, L. E., 1999, Biology of parasitic Hymenoptera, in: Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications of Biological Control (T. S. Bellows and T. W. Fisher, eds.), Academic Press, San Diego.

Goulet, H., and Huber, J. T. (eds.), 1993, Hymenoptera of the World: An Identification Guide to Families, Agriculture Canada, Research Branch, Ottawa.

Holldobler, B., and Wilson, E. O., 1990, The Ants, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Jervis, M., and Vilhelmsen, L., 2000, Mouthpart evolution in adults of the basal, 'symphytan', hymenopteran lineages, Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 70:121-146.

Malyshev, S. M., 1968, Genesis of the Hymenoptera and the Phases of Their Evolution (O. W. Richards and B. Uvarov, eds.), Methuen, London.

Michener, C. D., 1974, The Social Behavior of the Bees: A Comparative Study, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Michener, C. D., 2000, The Bees of the World, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Naumann, I. D., 1991, Hymenoptera, in: The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. 2 (CSIRO, ed.), Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.

O'Neill, K. M., 2001, Solitary Wasps: Behavior and Natural History, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Richards, O. W., 1977, Hymenoptera. Introduction and keys to families (2nd ed.), R. Entomol. Soc. Handb. Ident. Br. Insects 6(1):1-100.

Ronquist, F., 1999, Phylogeny of the Hymenoptera (Insecta): The state of the art, Zool. Scripta 28:3-11.

Ronquist, F., Rasnitsyn, A. P., Roy, A., Eriksson, K., and Lindgren, M., 1999, Phylogeny of the Hymenoptera: A cladistic reanalysis of Rasnitsyn's (1988) data, Zool. Scripta 28:13-50.

Ross, K. G., and Matthews, R. W. (eds.), 1991, The Social Biology of Wasps, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Seeley, T. D., 1985, Honeybee Ecology: A Study of Adaptation in Social Life, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Spradbury, J. P., 1973, Wasps: An Account of the Biology and Natural History of Social and Solitary Wasps, Sidgwick and Jackson, London.

Stephen, W. P., Bohart, G. E., and Torchio, P. F., 1969, The Biology and External Morphology of Bees with a 351

Synopsis ofthe Genera ofNorthwestern America, Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Corvallis. the REMAINING

Sudd, J. H., 1967, An Introduction to the Behaviour of Ants, Arnold, London. ENDOPTERYGOTE

Wilson, E. O., 1971, The Insect Societies, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. ┬░RDERS Vilhelmsen, L., 2001, Phylogeny and classification of the extant basal lineages of the Hymenoptera (Insecta), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 131:393-442.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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