300 head carries a pair of bulging compound eyes, chewing mouthparts, and long, multiseg-

mented antennae. Three ocelli are present (Raphidiidae) or absent (Inocelliidae). The wings are identical, and have a primitive venation of many crossveins, and a pterostigma. Females have a long hairlike ovipositor.

The internal structure is not well known. The crop has a dorsal food reservoir, and there are six Malpighian tubules. The central nervous system includes three thoracic and eight abdominal ganglia. The testes each comprise 12 follicles, the ovaries each about 40 telotrophic ovarioles.

Larva and Pupa. Larvae are elongate and have a prognathous head with chewing mouthparts. The thoracic legs are all identical. The abdomen lacks appendages. Pupae are decticous, exarate, and closely resemble adults.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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