368 are able to take up water from an atmosphere in which the humidity is relatively high.

Originally it was believed that uptake occurred across the body surface perhaps via the pore canals. However, it has now been demonstrated that uptake occurs across the wall of the rectum (Chapter 18, Section 4.1).

In many freshwater insects, for example, adult Heteroptera and Coleoptera, the cuticle is highly impermeable because of its wax monolayer and water gain is probably 4% or less of the body weight per day. In most aquatic insects, however, the wax layer is absent. Thus, gains of up to 30% of the body weight per day are experienced, the excess water being removed via the excretory system (Chapter 18, Section 4.2).

Insecticides. Economic motives have stimulated an enormous interest in the permeability of the integument to chemicals, especially insecticides and their solvents (Ebeling, 1974). Though, for the most part, the cuticle acts as a physical barrier to decrease the rate of entry of such materials, there is evidence that in some insects it may also bring about metabolic degradation of certain compounds, and consequently reduction of their potency. It follows that increased resistance to a particular compound may result from changes in either the structure or the metabolic properties of the integument (see also Chapter 16, Section 5.5). For most insects, the primary barrier to the entrance of insecticides is the epicuticular wax, which dissolves and retains these largely lipid-soluble materials. For the same reason, the cement layer also probably provides some protection against penetration. The procuti-cle offers both lipid and aqueous pathways along which an insecticide may travel, but the precise rate at which a compound moves depends on many variables, especially thickness of the cuticle, presence or absence of pore canals, and whether the latter are filled with cytoplasmic extensions or other material. It follows that the rate of penetration will vary according to the 1ocation of an insecticide on the integument. However, it has also been noted that dissolution in the wax will facilitate lateral movement of the insecticides, perhaps allowing them to reach the tracheal system and thus gain access. Thin, membranous cuticle such as occurs in intersegmental regions or covers tactile or chemosensory hairs generally provides little resistance to penetration. The tracheal system is another site of entry. The extent to which tanning of the procuticle occurs is also related to penetration rate. As the chitin-protein micelles become more tightly packed and the cuticle partially dehydrated, permeability decreases.

In addition, but obviously related to the physical features of the cuticle, the physico-chemical nature of an insecticide is an important factor in determining the rate of entry. Especially significant is the partition coefficient (the relative solubility in oil and in water) of an insecticide or its solvent. In order to penetrate the epicuticular wax the material must be relatively lipid-soluble. However, in order to pass through the relatively polar procuti-cle and, eventually, to leave the integument to move toward its site of action, the material must be partially water-soluble. Thus, correct formulation of an insecticidal solution is an important consideration.

It should be apparent from the above discussion that few generalizations can be made. At the present time, therefore, the suitability of an insecticide must be considered separately for each species. Because of the factors that affect the entry of insecticides, a great difference usually exists between "real toxicity," that is, toxicity at the site of action, and "apparent toxicity," the amount of material that must be applied topically to bring about death of the insect. The chief feature that relates the two is obviously the "penetration velocity," that is, the rate at which material passes through the cuticle. When the rate is high, the real and apparent toxicity values will be nearly identical.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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