386 the same general features as chemosensory hairs have been observed in the food canal of aphids, on the labellum of flies, and on the cockroach hypopharynx. Some thick-walled hairs are both mechano- and chemosensory.

Thin-walled (multiporous) chemosensilla of various types (Figure 12.9B) have been described from the antennae of all species sufficiently well studied (Keil, 1999; Ryan, 2002). They have in common a thin cuticular covering (0.1-1 in width) perforated by many (up to several thousand) pores. Usually, beneath each pore is a small chamber from whose base numerous pore tubules connect with the sensillar sinus. The pores are filled with lipid that is transported to the cuticular surface to reduce water loss (Chapter 11, Section 2). Most sensilla receive several neurons whose dendrites are much branched and terminate beneath the pore tubules. Thin-walled chemosensilla exist as surface hairs and pegs, pegs in pits, and plate organs (sensilla placodea). The latter are roundish, flat, or domed areas of cuticle, which occur in great density on the antennae of many Hymenoptera, some Coleoptera, and some homopterans. For some time their function was controversial; however, recent electrophysiological and electron microscope studies have confirmed that they are olfactory.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment