380 substrate. These have been interpreted as avoidance reactions, as the frequencies correspond with those made by wing beats of caterpillar parasitoids (tachinids and ichneumonids) and predators (wasps). Apparently, the caterpillars can hear the sounds at distances up to about 70 cm (Markl and Tautz, 1975).

In contrast, far-field detectors are pressure difference receivers (are stimulated by changes in air pressure created by sound waves), are sensitive to a wide range of high frequencies (2 to over 100 kHz), almost always haveatympanum, and hence are commonly called "tympanal organs" (Section 3.2).

Specialized auditory organs comprise groups of chordotonal sensilla and associated accessory structures that enhance the sensitivity of the organ. They include Johnston's organ, tympanal organs, and subgenual organs. The first two are sensitive to only airborne vibrations, the latter mainly to vibrations in solids, though in a few species airborne sounds are detected by these structures.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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