430 most insects produce these compounds endogenously. However, given the wide array of plant natural products, including many feeding deterrents, it is not surprising to discover that some specialist herbivores have evolved the ability to sequester these normally highly toxic compounds for their own use against would-be predators. A well-known example of this phenomenon is the accumulation of cardenolides by monarch butterfly caterpillars and lygaeid bugs as they feed on foliage and seeds, respectively, of milkweeds (Asclepias spp.). Likewise, larvae of the sawfly Neodiprion sertifer sequester terpenoid compounds from their host, Scots pine (Pinus silvestris), and use them as defensive allomones (Blum, 1981).

Allomones are occasionally used aggressively to attract prey or, in social Hymenoptera, to rob nests of other species (Blum, 1996). For example, the staphylinid beetle Leistrophus versicolor normally feeds on flies of dung and carrion. When these flies are unavailable, it releases an allomone that attracts Phoridae and Drosophilidae (though curiously not its normal prey). Some ants and stingless bees release allomones when they raid nests of closely related species. The allomone overrides the effect of the host species' alarm pheromones, enabling the attackers to rob or take over the nest.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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