506 in the hemolymph. The glycerol produced as an antifreeze in the hemolymph of some insects that must withstand extremely low winter temperatures is also derived from fat body glycogen. Glycogen in muscle is used directly as an energy source, being degraded as in mammalian tissue via the glycolytic pathway, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain, with resultant production of ATP.

Glycogen also is a significant component of the yolk in the eggs of some insects. Its use as an energy source in this situation is, however, secondary to its importance as a provider of glucose units for chitin synthesis in the developing embryo.

As in vertebrates, the major functions of the pentose cycle in insects are (1) production of reducing equivalents (as NADP) that are used, for example, in lipid synthesis, and (2) production of five-carbon sugars for nucleic acid synthesis. In addition, through its ability to interconvert sugars containing from three to seven carbon atoms, the pentose cycle can change "unusual" sugars produced during digestion into six-carbon derivatives and hence into glycogen.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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