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728 in order to separate the lac. The lac is a component of shellac, though its importance has declined considerably with the development of synthetic materials.

The pela wax scale has been used in China for commercial production of "China wax," principally in Sichuan province, for more than 1000 years. It is the second-instar males that produce economically valuable wax. These are carefully managed in large aggregations (200 per cm2, and extending a distance of 1.0-1.5 m along a branch) that produce a coating of wax some 5-10 mm thick. Wax production peaked in the early 1900s and in a good year was more than 6000 tonnes. Most of this wax was used in the manufacture of candles. Starting in the 1940s, with the coming of electricity and discovery of other waxes (notably paraffin wax), interest in China wax production declined, and currently about 500 tonnes is harvested yearly. It is used for a variety of industrial, pharmaceutical, and horticultural purposes, for example, the manufacture of molds for precision instruments, insulation of electrical cables and equipment, production of high-gloss, tracing, and wax paper, as an ingredient of furniture and automobile polishes, coating candies and pills, and as a grafting agent for fruit trees (Qin, in Ben-Dov and Hodgson, 1994).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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