726 originally may have been an important seasonal food for humans, took on new significance as humans turned to a farming rather than a hunting existence. However, with rare exceptions, for example, the honey bee and silkmoth whose management is relatively simple and laborintensive, until recently humans neither desired nor were able, because of a lack of basic knowledge as well as technology, to attempt large-scale modification of the environment of insects, either to increase the number of beneficial insects or to decrease the number of those designated as pests.

Several features of recent human evolution have made such attempts imperative. These include a massive increase in population, a trend toward urbanization, increased geographic movement of people and agricultural products, and, associated with the need to feed more people, a trend toward monoculture as an agricultural practice.

The relatively crowded conditions of urban areas enable insects parasitic on humans both to locate a host (frequently a prerequisite to reproduction) and to transfer between host individuals. Thus, urbanization facilitates the spread of insect-borne human diseases such as typhus, plague, and malaria whose spectacular effects on human population are well documented. For example, in the sixth century A.D. plague was responsible for the death of about 50% of the population in the Roman Empire, and "Black Death" killed a similar proportion of England's population in the mid-1300s (Southwood, 1977).

An increasing need to produce more and cheaper food led, through agricultural mechanization, to the practice of monoculture, the growing of a crop over the same large area of land for many years consecutively. However, two faults of monoculture are (1) the ecosystem is simplified and (2) as the crop plant is frequently graminaceous (a member of the grass family, including wheat, barley, oats, rice, and corn), the ecosystem is artificially maintained at an early stage of ecological succession. By simplifying the ecosystem, humans encourage the buildup of populations of the insects that compete with them for the food being grown. Further, as the competing insects are primary consumers, that is, near the start of the food chain, they typically have a high reproductive rate and short generation time. In other words, populations of such species have the potential to increase at a rapid rate.

A massive increase in human geographic movements and a concomitant increase in trade led to the transplantation of a number of species, both plant and animal, into areas previously unoccupied by them. Some of these were able to establish themselves and, in the absence of normal regulators of population (especially predators and parasitoids), increased rapidly in number and became important pests. Sometimes, as humans colonized new areas, some of the cultivated plants that were introduced proved to be an excellent food for species of insects endemic to these areas. For example, the Colorado beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, was originally restricted to the southern Rocky Mountains and fed on wild Solanaceae. With the introduction of the potato by settlers, the beetle had an alternate, more easily accessible source of food, as a result of which both the abundance and distribution of the beetle increased and the species became an important pest. Likewise, the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, apparently fed on hawthorn until apples were introduced into the eastern United States (Horn, 1976).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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